Child mortality

Child mortality is the mortality of children under the age of one year. Child mortality - conditional concept that refers to the number of children who died within the first year of life, i.e. the born alive and not lived up to a year. The number of stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life per 1000 live births (perinatal mortality) is analyzed separately.
The infant mortality rate is the ratio of the number of deaths during a certain period of children under the age of 1 year to the number of births during the same period, expressed as a percentage or ppm. Given the fact that among the dead in a given year in children under 1 year are children born in the previous year, the infant mortality rate is calculated by the formula:
the number of deaths of children under 1 year old in a given year x1000 and divide by the 1/3 of live births in the previous year +2/3 live births in a given year.
In tsarist Russia, the infant mortality rate in 1913 was equal to 269 degrees pero. During the years of Soviet power the infant mortality rate had dropped to 26 degrees pero, i.e. more than 10 times. The main factors in the sharp reduction of child mortality are significant rise of material welfare and culture of the population, expansion of the network of health, advances in medical science, conducting special state events on the protection of motherhood and childhood (see).
The largest share of deaths in the first year of a child's life falls on the first month, on the first month on the first week, the first week - on the first day of life.
Currently, there is no sharp seasonal fluctuations of child mortality that occurred in pre-revolutionary Russia, but there is a small summer and autumn-winter climbs, which are mainly caused in the first case, gastrointestinal diseases, in the second - pneumonia.
The main causes of child mortality are diseases of the newborn, congenital malformations and pneumonia.
The main factors affecting child mortality, the following. 1. Premature birth. Premature babies die in 15-20 times more likely than full-term. 2. The disease of newborns, especially pneumonia, in the first 3 months of life. 3. Health status of mothers during pregnancy and childbirth. Cardiovascular diseases, diseases of Liver, kidneys, infectious diseases mother pose a serious threat to the fetus. From complications of pregnancy most negatively affect the health of the child, late toxicosis. 4. The age of the mother and the number of births. The most favorable outcomes for families is the mother's age 20-24 year for the first birth and 25-29 years for the second. 5. The level of sanitary culture of the family. Low sanitary culture of parents caring for a child, has a negative impact on his health (particularly adverse outcome in patients of children in these conditions give pneumonia and gastrointestinal disease). 6, the Quality of medical care of women and children.
In the fight to reduce child mortality great importance imut curative and preventive activities, carried out together with doctors, average medical workers. Greatest role nurses in this respect in the village.
Regular monitoring of the infant, the organization of correct feeding and hygiene care, elimination of harmful household factors, largely carried out by a nurse, are among the most important events in the upbringing of a healthy child (see Consultation).