The pathogenesis of action of alcohol on the body

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Important role in the pathogenesis of disorders in the body during alcoholic intoxication play reduction antitoxic function of the liver as a result of its fatty degeneration. According to Century, Zenevich (1959), reducing the antitoxic function of the liver is reflected in the work of the brain, leading to discoordination endocrine system, contributing gepatotserebralnaya degeneration.
An important moment in the process of metabolism and blockade functions of enzymes involved in redox processes, and is the metabolism of catecholamines. Disorders in neurotransmitter system cause emotional tension continuously observed in people who abuse alcohol.
According to Century, Morozova (1976), patients with chronic alcoholism reduces the content of antibodies in the blood.
G. A. Panasia (1974) in people who drink alcohol, have found a violation of balance in the coagulation, expressed in the tendency to hypercoagulation and increase of blood clots, early development of atherosclerosis.
Under long influence of alcohol in a number of organs and systems irreversible changes, especially expressed in the brain. The substance of the brain is exposed to alcohol in the first place and most deeply affected. In the cerebral cortex, thalamus, limbic system, reticular formation are marked structural changes. According to I. Century Davydov (1969), 80.2% of patients with alcoholism nonfunctional the bark of the big hemispheres of a brain. In severe cases with lethal outcome are identified swelling of the membranes and substance of the brain, dyscirculatory vasaputi, hypoxia in the field of the basal ganglia, the trunk, the cerebellum.
Depending on the stage of alcoholism is a change in the tone of the autonomic nervous system. In the initial stage of increased sympathetic tone, then the decline of tone of sympathetic system increases parasympathetic tone, resulting in the lowering of total immunological reactivity of the organism. Perhaps this is to some extent due to the high mortality of intercurrent diseases among alcoholics.
Suffering and peripheral nervous system. The most pronounced changes occur in the nerve trunks. Century, Palikarsky (1977) in people with chronic alcohol intoxication and deaths from acute alcohol intoxication, revealed atrophy makalnyh fibers, more expressed in the distal, perhaps associated with a deficiency of b vitamins, or axonal degeneration, which is explained by the toxic metabolites of alcohol (pyruvic acid and acetaldehyde). Electromyographical is determined by the defeat of the motor neuron.
According to the data of experimental studies in rabbits when exposed to increasing doses of alcohol affects mainly the tibia, peroneal and sciatic nerves, and often particularly sensitive peroneal. Even if the action is isolated on the sciatic nerve is affected mainly personalnye fiber. It is established that people are also more affected peroneal nerve, and the longer the admission of alcohol, the greater the defeat (Bogolepov N. K., Rastvorova A. A., 1962, and others).
Y. M. Saveliev (1971) and other authors have found signs of PN in 20-30% of patients. In the pathogenesis of disorders of the peripheral nervous system the importance attached to a toxic effect of alcohol on the nervous fibers and deficiency of thiamine and Niacin, as well as to reduce the antitoxic function of the liver. It was noted primary defeat of the lower extremities, and rarely hands and oculomotor nerves.