The pathogenesis of action of alcohol on the body

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Ethyl alcohol has an effect mainly on the Central nervous system, so it is called "nerve poison. First of all disturbed activity of the cerebral cortex - is the weakening of inhibitory processes in the crust, which in turn leads to the release of subcortical centers from under her influence, contributing to the clinic alcoholic excitation. Oppression of subcortical centers as a result of increasing concentrations of alcohol often leads to a comatose state. At the further influence of alcohol on the Central nervous system occur organic changes: the defeat of the cells of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata. As a result of violations complex integrative processes in this system is discoordination of redox processes in the cells of the brain.
One of the pathological factors of influence of alcohol is its ability to penetrate inside cells that determines its spread throughout the body. Effects of alcohol on the vasomotor centre oblong brain happen expansion of peripheral vessels, in particular the skin and the blood flow perceived as sensations of heat, but high doses of alcohol contributes to the development of paralysis of this center.
The reception is small but regular doses of alcohol leads to increased heat generation and heat transfer. Increases concentration of alcohol increases the negative temperature balance. Body temperature drops parallel to the degree of intoxication. By means of influence on the Central nervous system changes the secretion of digestive glands, increases the secretion of digestive juice, which, however, poor enzymes.
Local effects on the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract contributes to the development of dystrophic and erosive processes in the parenchyma and mucous. It should be noted that 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in the stomach, 80% in the gut. Under the influence of alcohol increases the motility of the stomach and reduces the reflex action of the digestive tract. In the process of systematic use of its resorption increases due to the delay in the intestine. With the admission of alcohol after eating (especially potatoes, meat, fat) decreases the rate of absorption and is lost (the collapse, the relationship with the squirrels food) to 33-39% alcohol. A maximum concentration in the blood is noted in approximately 45 to 90 minutes after taking the drink. When studying the patterns of absorption of alcohol obtained interesting results: resorption of alcohol when you receive significantly higher, as the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract is already prepared for the absorption and the reflex action of the digestive tract local irritation is reduced. In patients suffering from gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, it is significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Maloproletnyh and unusual to alcohol people absorption is slower than that of alcohol abusers. Unlike the elderly and children, the young and middle age have the tolerance to it.
The main importance in the elimination of alcohol from the body have the kidneys and lungs, which emit from the body from 2 to 10% of alcohol in an unmodified form. Other 90-98% are endogenous to oxidation.
According to many authors, the ratio of the concentrations of alcohol in the blood and brain tissue above one, because the release of his brain and spinal fluid is slower compared to other tissues of the body and blood. Already in the absence of his blood alcohol for a long time it is found in brain tissue.
Under the influence of alcohol is broken vitamin currency, especially b vitamins (B1, B2, B15) and S. resulting in reduced synthesis of amino acids.