Decontamination (decontamination) - removal of radioactive substances from the surface or from the masses of different environmental objects (buildings, clothing, equipment; water, food , etc). The main task of decontamination - reducing the levels of pollution by radioactive substances (see Isotopes, radioactive) to acceptable levels or concentrations. Significant importance is picking up and removal of radioactive waste (see).
The main methods of deactivation: 1) mechanical (water wash-out, wiping rags, or similar, in some sections, cleaning brushes, processing vacuum cleaners and sandblasting machines and other); 2) physical (dilution with water and others); 3) chemicals (acids, alkalis , etc); 4) physical-chemical (detergents, ion-exchange resins and so on); 5) biological (activated sludge and other).
For decontamination of surfaces, a mechanical methods: powders collect wet rags, solutions - filter paper and so on, then treated surface cleaning solution (powder "News" and others). In case of significant residual contamination, mechanically remove the cover of the table, a floor, plaster, etc.
Equipment decontamination produce the same methods. For decontamination of equipment from stainless steel apply nitric and hydrofluoric acid. Valuable equipment inactivate solutions lemon and oxalic acids (0,1-0,2%).
Decontamination of protective clothing is achieved multi-stage processing of various detergents on the technology of washing oxalic (lemon acid, trylon B and other means.
Hands process using brush with warm water and soap. When contamination radioactive thorium or phosphorus should wash hands again soap with Trilon B, hexametaphosphate or detergent powder, when pollution radium - kaolin soap.
To remove other radioactive substances used 1 -2% solution of sodium citrate or wetting of OP 10.
Decontamination of water and liquid radioactive waste is produced using a complex method, including mechanical (filters) and biological (biofilters) cleaning, coagulation and ion-exchange filters, as well as evaporation, foaming and other
For decontamination of food used mechanical methods: wash water, remove the surface layer. Structural contamination of food (e.g., vegetables through the root system) decontamination difficult and ineffective. When contamination of short-lived isotopes products are stored for the period during which the radioactivity decreases to safe level by natural radioactive decay. The level of contamination of food decreases significantly when many processes: grain milling, manufacturer of melted butter and other
Quality control deactivation is carried out with the help of dosimetric and radiometric instruments.
When carrying out decontamination you must follow the rules of work with radioactive substances, including dosimetric control (see) and sanitation (see) people engaged in these works.
Decontamination in the military field conditions is aimed at preventing or reducing the damaging effects of radioactive substances on the troops trapped in zones of radioactive contamination.
Decontamination in the military field conditions is the removal of radioactive substances from surfaces of weapons, military equipment, engineering constructions, personal protection equipment, clothing, footwear, equipment, as well as food and water. The most effective decontamination carried out soon after radioactive contamination. Depending on the completeness of the removal of radioactive substances decontamination in the military field conditions may be partial or complete.
Partial deactivation is carried out by the personnel of the troops. It involves removing the main quantity of radioactive substances from surfaces of objects and objects with which compelled to come into contact personnel. Partial deactivation is carried out both on the infected and non-infected areas using mostly improvised. From the surface of infected objects and objects of radioactive dust is removed by a sweep of her branches, brooms or brushes or rubbing wet rags, rags and bundles of grass and snow, taken from the deep layers. Uniforms, bags, gas masks, cloak-capes, camp and other tents are vytjagivanie or extortion sticks. At partial deactivation of mobile military equipment (tanks, armored personnel carriers, and so on) and engineering constructions are processed and their inner surfaces. If a nearby water source, the surface of the subjects and objects of wash water. Partial deactivation of open fortifications is removed from the bottom of ditches, trenches, shooting cell surface layer of the earth thickness of 3-5 sm after sweep of radioactive dust with vertical and inclined surfaces.
Full decontamination is complete removal of radioactive substances from all surfaces of the subjects and objects of military purpose or in reduction of contamination of these substances to levels that are safe for personnel. The effectiveness of the full decontamination controlled dosimetric devices (see ionizing radiation Dosimeters). Full decontamination is carried out by special units on the items of special treatment (see), deployed at sites outside of the contaminated zone.
Complete removal of radioactive substances from all weapons and military equipment, equipment, footwear, protective clothing, masks, and other items, moisturizing which does not cause them harm, is conducted with a water jet or decontamination solutions using special obivochnogo technology. To be most effective when washing the use of brushes, brooms, rags, etc. Outfit with a strong radioactive contamination, is not reduced when vytjagivanii and extortion, subject washing in a special mechanized Laundry.
Food and water while infecting them with radioactive substances are only full decontamination. For water purification using special water treatment equipment containing filter materials, which will be replaced periodically.
Food contained in the solid hermetic containers, used only after careful handling of containers. Flour, cereals and other products that are enclosed in soft containers (bags), wet, dry and after the formation of surface crust pour into a clean bags, and the crust is destroyed. Meat and fish carefully wash out water. The use of food and water is allowed only after dosimetric control. The personnel involved in the conduct decontamination, is sanitary processing.