Objective methods of diagnostics

Of crucial importance in the diagnosis of diseases of the colon belongs objective research methods. These include digital examination of the rectum, anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, x-ray examination of the colon (the method of double contrast study), morphological methods of histology and Cytology) and so on

Digital examination of the rectum

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of this method, which reveals any pathology in the anal canal and niinianoao Department of the rectum. For a study patient takes the knee-elbow position. If the patient is weakened or suffer from serious illness, such as cardiovascular, it can be examined in the position of the patient on the side of the belly and his feet. On the right hand exploring the worn rubber glove. The index finger is smeared liquid paraffin oil or vaseline ointment and entered into the anus. Conducts methodical survey available of the Department of cancer. The method allows to determine the consistency of an entity, its mobility, the involvement of the intestine wall and surrounding tissue, the degree of ulceration and prevalence. When finger study also drawn attention to the nature of the pathological discharge, remaining on the glove. It is important to know the technique for digital research rectum and have sufficient experience. In this study palpable adjacent organs (prostate in men, the cervix and the back surface of the uterus in women). In the absence of sufficient experience of pathological processes in these organs can be incorrectly interpreted as diseases of the rectum.


To explore the anal canal is used, the device is called an anoscope, or rectal mirror. There are many different types of mirrors. They are two-, three - and four-leaved. These shutters can be continuous and lattice. Experience has shown that the lattice mirrors unsuitable for research. They are extremely traumatic. It is therefore advisable to use to anoscope mirrors with solid doors.
Before the introduction of the mirror abundantly greased with vaseline. Introduction to the anus is carried out behind closed doors; the further revelation of leaves is made slowly to avoid painful reaction caused by the stretching sphincter muscle. The use of rectal mirrors gives the opportunity to see the mucous membrane niinianoaoao Department of the rectum and the anal canal. Great value, this method has, for example, for the differential diagnosis of true polyps and so-called hypertrophied papilla. The latter are easy exaltation of the mucosa in the area marganiya crypts as a result of chronic irritation in the fissures, proctitis , and other chronic diseases of intestines. Often nipples stretch and get polypoid form. Wrong diagnosis in these cases leads to unnecessary surgery.
In addition, anoscopy gives the opportunity to perform differential diagnosis between the so-called fibrous polyp, which normally resides in the anal canal, and thrombosed internal hemorrhoid node. In the latter case, if anoscope determined rounded education purple-bluish or whitish color without the neck and legs, characteristic of the polyp.