Diagnosis - a short summary about the nature of the disease and the patient's condition.
Diagnostics - section of medical science that studies the methods of investigation of the patient to recognize the disease; consists of three sections: medical diagnostic equipment, studying research methods of the patient; semiotics (see) and methods of diagnosis, studying peculiarities of thinking for proper recognition of the disease.
General plan of the diagnostic study. After reviewing the complaints, anamnesis of the patient and start to examine the condition of the patient main methods of clinical research (see below). Investigate morphological and functional state of different organs, paying particular attention to the individual characteristics of the patient (body shape, higher nervous activity, General reactivity and so on).
Next, based on the detection of symptoms and presumptive diagnosis, the doctor prescribes more detailed, more research (laboratory, radiology, and so on) to clarify the causes of the disease, place and nature of the lesion. Even in those cases, when the diagnosis of the underlying disease establish a glance (for example, tireotoksicski goitre, some forms of congenital heart disease), a methodological study of the patient is necessary for understanding the state of the organism as a whole and ensure proper treatment. The study should be completed by the diagnosis. Choice of therapeutic interventions usually arises from diagnosis. The diagnosis of the patient, may change in the disease process (its progression, complications, improve, and so on).
Diagnostic conclusion, covering all the time observation and treatment, is represented in the form of the summary (see History).
Clinical diagnostic research methods are divided into basic and advanced. Main - interrogation, inspection, feeling, percussion, auscultation, measurement (see Auscultation, examination of a patient, Palpation, Percussion) - be sure to apply your doctor each patient.
Additional methods of laboratory, instrumental and others) are often not the attending physician, and other specialists. They are not less important for the diagnosis than the basic methods.
The method of the diagnostic study. The conditions for success diagnostics: 1) by a doctor (or nurse) should be fluent technique clinical studies;
2) clearly know the symptoms (see);
3) to be able to compare the respective figures of norm and pathology (for example, heart sounds in a patient and healthy). Then the doctor (or nurse) should first of all think about the most frequent diseases, to take account of the epidemic (e.g., influenza and other), the nature of the terrain, time of year, and the age of the patient. Observation must be accurate, complete and planned. Very significantly rule double or triple ensure the accuracy of the symptoms observed: each symptom, sign or measurement rescanned, various methods. Only the coincidence of the results provides the reliability of the symptom, and the specification it gives benign material for diagnosis.
There are several periods of diagnostic tests: 1) the study of life of the patient (see History); 2) study of each patient of all organs and systems in a specific order; 3) detailed research bodies, by which the identified violations; 4) the study of individual reactions of the patient that accompany this disease; 5) study of the history of this disease in its relationship with the life of the patient, i.e. the establishment of socio-biological diagnosis of the patient.
The heavy disease (for example, shock, "acute abdomen" and others) and the limited capacity of the rule is to study first of all the vital organs, to determine the degree of threat to life. Then recognition stops at the preliminary diagnosis and doctor (or performing its functions paramedic) skips to the therapeutic action, if there is an urgent indications.
The organization of diagnostic studies. Doctor (or performing its functions paramedic), fully responsible for the diagnosis, the need to interrogate and examine the patient and to undertake additional clinical trials. In addition, often produced consultations of doctors of different specialties, and sometimes the solution of complex problems of diagnostics is submitted to the Council (see).
When making the diagnosis is required: 1) the selection of the underlying disease; it is necessary to specify nosologic unit, the degree of compensation or stage of disease, the nature of the pathological process and its course, the nature and degree of functional disorders, pathogenesis and etiology of the disease; 2) complications; 3) co-morbidities. The diagnosis is repeated in the discharge summary, specifying the disease, applied treatment and its results, prescriptions for the future.
Prior diagnosis in those cases, if the validity of pathologic process is still doubtful for the doctor (often because of a lack of data). Especially important early diagnosis, enabling timely treatment (such as cancer, tuberculosis and other). One of the ways of solving the problem of early diagnosis is clinical examination of healthy people.