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In addition to the residual nitrogen practiced determination in blood parts - urea and creatinine. The most sensitive indicator - creatinine. With its help it is possible to write down the performance of the glomeruli and tubules. For this test, called clearance test, test for the purification) creatinine is suitable as a substance that enters the nephron only through the glomeruli and not reabsorbiruetsa tubules. But his glomeruli filtered out from the plasma, so many will be removed from the body. Also behave in the nephrons and some other substances: inulin, sodium thiosulfate, but they have to enter into the blood, creatinine is produced in the body, is always present in the blood and to determine its concentration is easy and blood, and urine. Take them for research in equal intervals of time.
This biochemistry ends, starts mathematics. Creatinine urine divided into creatinine of blood, multiplied by the amount of urine that is released in the tested for 1 minute, and get the coefficient of purification. It shows how much blood has time to rid creatinine for 1 minute, or otherwise - the volume of glomerular filtration. So find out how blocked illness this initial phase natronnoy technology. Easy to compute and performance tubules. You know, how much water was filtered balls, how much of it was allocated, and the difference was reabsorbiruetsa tubules.
Such precise functional tests allow not only to fix the beginning, emerging renal failure, which, of course, by itself, is of great importance. Clearance-tests give a quantitative assessment of the kidneys, the degree of preservation of the parenchyma, and it is invaluable to select the correct treatment tactics.
To judge kidneys work separately and allows age-old, but still not rejected, often practiced instrumental exploration - cystoscopy and such modification as homocysteinemia. The inner surface of the bladder visiting put out a special optical instrument with lighting. Invented it more than 100 years ago, is now much more sophisticated in the last models used fiber optics, and because of this they have become thinner, visibility has improved. Cystoscopy help the doctor own eyes, to see what is going on in the bladder and in particular what and how comes it from each of the ureter. For greater clarity is injected into the blood harmless blue paint and watch how quickly it stands out from one and another of the ureter.
Extensive and detailed information on the kidneys, on the individual peculiarities of their structure, about the circumstances in which you have to work the nephrons, you can retrieve, considering them in light invisible x-rays.
Repelled usually overview snapshot, from the review urography. The film size 30X40 cm x ray captures the entire urinary system from the top of the poles before the beginning of the urethra, and in passing inner circle - part of the spine, ribs, pelvis, lumbar muscles. Figure this shadow. The contours of the authorities differ in density shadows they cast. And the shadow different because fabrics in different degrees permeable rays, discovered in 1895 by the German physicist-experimenter Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. To the credit of urology a year after it was made urography and confirmed its diagnostic value: in the picture was visible stone in the kidney. And to this day, despite the invention of many other examination methods, urography retained its value as a method of detection of stones. Most of them rentgenopozitivnye, that is, in one way or another delay x-rays, looming on the film.