Multilingual dialogues

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And even the authorities not to delay the x-ray beam, owe him sometimes with detection of some disorder. The ureters, for example, in its original condition on x-ray are not visible. Therefore, the appearance of the silhouette or a shadow in their place is a sign of deviation from the norm, which must decipher. Urologists appreciate the overview picture as a sort of map printed individual characteristics of the location of the kidneys, their spatial relationship with the neighbors. This survey necessarily precedes the action of a scalpel, many instrumental examinations.
Overview urography no trouble patient does not deliver. Another thing is retrograde, or rising, pielografia, from the Latin word retrogrades - going back. Exactly the opposite, rising current fill urinary tract radiopaque substance. It is well visible on the film and makes visible minor deformation, destruction in cups, the pelvis, ureter. If as a radiopaque substance to enter the gas (often use oxygen), CSOs sparprogramm background shadow appears even x-ray negative stone, usually indistinguishable in the pictures.
To get an accurate answer is tempting, but the way to ask a question is downright barbaric, not physiological. It is necessary to enter into the bladder cystoscope, and then, in the ureter,the catheter and it contrast to it, contrary to nature, reversing come to the pelvis, cups. This manipulation traumatic, especially for men, and although comply with stringent precautions against infection, have not eliminated the risk of penetration of microbes in the parenchyma, the development of pyelonephritis. Pelvis and cups are experiencing increased internal pressure that may occur pelvis-kidney reflux reflux, numb from the pelvis and cups in the parenchyma, veins and lymphatic system of the kidney.
Therefore, despite the large diagnostic capabilities and experience (for the first time this study was completed in 1906), urologists have sharply limited the use of the retrograde pielografii, as only managed to find other ways to get the x-ray eyes in a Cup, to the threshold of the parenchyma. A quarter century after the first retrograde pielografii urology has adopted excretory urography, and excretion. It turned out, there is such contrast media that are in the vessels and the nephrons in unmodified form, without harming them, and preserving their visual effect. They are introduced into the bloodstream (often intravenously) and x-ray beam record moments passing by parenchyma, highlight it in the Cup, pelvis, outflow and accumulation in the bubble.
Over the last 15-20 years, this technique has been considerably improved. Improved design of vehicles created more sensitive film and more "relief" colors of x-ray palette proposed more efficient methods of research. And the need for painful rising pielografii disappeared, except in those rare cases when it is otherwise impossible to obtain the image of the excretory tract.
Kind pielografii - antegrade, descending. In this study, the contrast agent is injected with a needle directly into the buckets and Shine the way from her downward, parenchyma left out of the review. This is a partial survey do if the nephrons function poorly, poorly filtered contrast agent. Then go round the parenchyma and under local anesthesia, focusing on pre-made survey snapshot that pierce the skin and promoted in the pelvis.
This principle (but not technique!) was very convenient in the post-operative practice. Often the kidney, which stuck the knife needs to drainage, the creation of outflow special tube. The surgeon strengthens it in a sack. This tube is easy to fill the buckets radiopaque substance and check that you are not shifted whether drainage, passable whether the urinary tract.