Modern achievements of medical science has created opportunities for radical impact on the incidence of diphtheria. Currently in the Soviet Union completed the liquidation of the incidence of this infection. However, the attention should not be weakened.
Diphtheria is caused by a microbe, having under microscope view thin sticks; on behalf opened her scientist, it's called a wand Leffler.
The essence of the disease can be summarised as follows. The cause diphtheria settled on the mucous membranes of the throat, nose, throat and upper respiratory tract (larynx, trachea) infected child. Rarely, it can settle the conjunctiva of the eyes, mucous membrane of genitals and damaged skin. Settling on the mucous membrane, diphtheria Bacillus multiplies rapidly and produces the toxin. Under the influence of the latter are formed white or grayish-white film, relatively densely sitting on the mucous membrane. This is one of the main symptoms of diphtheria disease. Diphtheria toxin with mucous membranes absorbed in the blood and poisons the whole body, affecting a number of vital organs.
After infection begins latent period diphtheria, lasting from 2 to 10 days.
Depending on the place of penetration and localization of diphtheria microbe there are various forms of diseases: diphtheria throat, nose, throat, eyes, genitals and skin.
Diphtheria throat. The disease begins with distress and usually a moderate increase in temperature (up to 38-38,5 degrees). The patient has a sore throat, swelling appears submandibular lymph nodes. When viewed throat patient detected redness of the mucous membrane and white or grayish-white, filmy raids on the tonsils and less on the soft palate. Than prevailing raids, the stronger the poisoning of the body diphtheria poison and heavier than the disease.
In very mild cases, the raids appear in the form of small Islands on the surface of the tonsils. In severe forms of diphtheria film line the whole mucous membrane of the mouth and throat. There is an unpleasant smell, like a mouth; submandibular lymph nodes increase considerably, surrounded by their large swelling appears. This so-called toxic form in which there is the strongest poisoning of the body toxin, which poses a serious threat to the life of the child.
Diphtheria nose is manifested hard leaking cold. From the nasal openings arise mucopurulent, spotting; nasal breathing becomes difficult or impossible. The General status (especially with the disease of older children) may not be violated, and the temperature slightly increased or normal. That is why when the disease of a child diphtheria nose parents especially not worried and in most cases too late to seek medical assistance.
Diphtheria larynx, or cereals, initially characterized by fever, hoarseness and rough barking cough. All phenomena of the disease quickly grow; hoarseness increases up to a complete loss of voice, and at the end of the first or on the second day of the disease develops respiratory distress. It is loud, audible even at a distance. Difficulty breathing increases. If the patient is not provided with emergency medical care, restoring the airway, comes the final stage of the disease is shortness of breath: baby blue, tossing about in bed, quickly becomes weak, cardiac activity he falls. Death from suffocation. Fortunately, in our time, such an outcome is very unusual.
For all the variety of manifestations of diphtheria its characteristic features allow the doctor to recognize the disease. The big help in the diagnosis has bacteriological examination of mucus from throat and nose on the presence of the diphtheria Bacillus. Patients with early disease difficult to establish the diagnosis of diphtheria, placed in a detention center, where are all the necessary research.
Diphtheria toxin has a strong effect on a number of vital organs and contributes to the development of serious complications: the defeat of the heart muscle (myocarditis), nerves with the development of paralysis (polyneuritis), kidneys. When diphtheria croup often occurs pneumonia.
If the treatment of diphtheria started early (in the first and second day of the illness), then even severe forms can proceed without complications and can result in complete recovery.
Successful treatment of diphtheria (especially if severe) may be provided only in hospital conditions. Basic and mandatory in all cases of diphtheria method of treatment is the introduction of treatment of diphtheria serum, which will neutralize the toxin. In addition, taking a number of other therapeutic measures.
When diphtheria croup, if the phenomena of the breathing disorder pronounced and continue to grow, the necessity of the operation, restoring the cross narrowed Airways. With this purpose, or inserted into the throat of a metal tube (intubation), which in 2-3 days after the disappearance of obstacles for breathing extract or produce a tracheotomy, i.e. cut through the tissue of the neck and the front wall of the respiratory windpipe (trachea) and insert a few days a special tube.
How do people become infected with diphtheria? What ways of spread."
Source of infection diphtheria is a sick man. He is dangerous in the course of disease and usually some time after the complete disappearance of all its manifestations. After suffering diphtheria is often observed hosting, the duration of which shall be calculated in days, weeks, and in rare cases even months. Hosting is found not only have been ill with diphtheria, but also in healthy people (children and adults). It especially often develops in the immediate vicinity of the patient, such as members of his family.
The cause diphtheria, located on the mucous membranes of the throat and nose, or patient bacteriological, is transmitted to healthy people airborne.
Diphtheria Bacillus, getting on various objects of environment, can long maintain its viability. Underwear, clothes, utensils, toys, books, the former in the use of the patient, the atmosphere and the room where he was, - all this can save infection and to provide a means of its transmission healthy person.
Currently, during mass vaccination against diphtheria susceptibility to it are, as a rule, only children who for some reason have not been vaccinated or inoculated wrong.
Prophylactic vaccination, providing immunity of the children to diphtheria, are powerful, highly effective means of combating this infection.
For vaccinations are toxoid - the drug, which is a diphtheria toxin, which by special processing deprived of their toxic properties. With the introduction of the organism, the drug causes the formation and the emergence in the blood of antibodies (antitoxin)governing the immunity to diphtheria. The effectiveness of diphtheria vaccination proved a huge international experience and, in particular, its great success of the fight against diphtheria lately.
In our country diphtheria vaccination compulsory for all children starting from 5-6 months of age, followed by revaccination within a certain timeframe. At the present time in order to avoid unnecessary injuries of children vaccinated against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus are produced simultaneously the so-called associated pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine.
Along with vaccines are also aldeproductions and anti-epidemic measures.
When the disease of a child diphtheria, regardless of its gravity it is subject to a compulsory isolation in the hospital. Timeliness of hospitalization and, consequently, the success of treatment are in direct dependence on early treatment to the doctor. Write out the baby from the hospital only after the disappearance of all symptoms and release the body from the pathogen.
All persons living in the same apartment with the sick and having contact with him, subjected to medical examination and the examination on the hosting. Identified bakterionositeli not allowed in children's institutions; their treatment as instructed by the doctor. He decides the issue of the timing of their isolation.
Disinfection of the apartment, where the patient is immediately after his hospitalization. For this purpose use a disinfectant solutions (chlorine, chloramines, Lysol, etc.).
The whole system of anti-epidemic measures carried out with due completeness and thoroughness, is a mandatory addition to the main measure of struggle with diphtheria - mass immunization.