The age composition of the population

Our era of rapid changes of the social system is also the era of another revolution - the revolution of demographic. As a changed age structure of modern highly developed countries? What it was before, we can tell not only those records that have come down to us from the past centuries, but also by the fact that there is currently still underdeveloped countries, in the former colonies.
In the past this structure was characterized by high fertility and high mortality. In the population were young age group from 20 to 49 years. High infant mortality was the reason that young, youth ages were relatively small. As a result of hard living conditions, exhausting labour, high incidence of diseases of poverty - pulmonary infections (tuberculosis, and so on) - older age groups - groups of elderly and old people, were very small. Rarely people who happened to live to old age. In each country and at all times there were, of course, people who have managed to reach very old age. But these were units. The average life expectancy of the total population, taken as a whole, was, as we shall see later, is very short.
Accordingly, and age structure of the population was as follows: a very large group of children up to one year and up to five years. Due to the high mortality rate of children under one year of this group were rapidly disappearing and for the same generation already from the age of two she was less. Suffice it to recall that in tsarist Russia, child mortality, that is, the mortality rate of children up to one year, reached 270 per 1,000 live.
In many countries of the former colonial Africa and now, when child mortality of up to one year decreased slightly, still at the age of five dies almost half of all births.
The lowest mortality is observed in the group of children from 5 to 14 years. The size of this age group most. Then comes the next largest group is the group of people aged 20 to 49 years, the so-called group of people of productive age. The same group aged 60 and over in the past was small.
If we take the growth of the population in various countries over the past 50 years, we will see that it is first and foremost characterized by the increasing number of older groups over the age of 60 to 65 years. These groups are beginning to purchase in the population of more and more importance. Here are a few typical examples.
The percentage of people aged 65 years and older in the United States in 1850 was only 2.6 total population, and a hundred years later, in 1950, was 8.1. In other words, for a hundred years, he has more than tripled. Increased and the proportion of people aged 45 to 64 years. In 1850 it was 9.8% of the total population, and in 1950 -20,3%, i.e. more than doubled. In 1830, only 4% of the total white population of the USA were aged 65 years and older, and in 1950 -12,6%. These figures are given only in relation to the white population of the United States, as statistical data on the Negroes were very incomplete and inaccurate.
In some countries - France and Sweden - in 1900, the proportion of people over 65 has already been significant. In them the decline in fertility began in the XIX century, earlier than in other developed countries. France recently called "the land of the elderly", because in it the proportion of elderly in the population was the highest in Europe, and all over the world. But interestingly, those countries where this proportion in 1900 was relatively low, began quickly to catch up with France, and by 1950 the difference in the proportion of old people in them and in France very declined.
In several countries there was a decrease in the number age group from 1 year to 14 years of age, while the proportion of the age group 65 and over has grown steadily.
It shows that more and more people live to elderly and senile age.

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