Disinfectants, chemical and physical means, used for destruction in the environment of infectious diseases of humans, animals and plants diseases.
Physical agents used as disinfectants are boiling, drying, processing steam, dry hot air, the impact of high-frequency currents, ultrasound, ultraviolet rays and other
Chemical disinfectants used for the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms on the subjects of external environment, should have high solubility in water, to cause the death of microbes in the short term, not to reduce activity in the presence of organic substances, to be non-toxic or low toxicity to human and animals, not to have sharp unpleasant smell and not to spoil to be disinfected objects.
These disinfectants often used in the form of solutions or suspensions in certain concentrations, adhering to deadlines actions.
The most common disinfectants are chloractive substances, derivatives of phenol, Quaternary ammonium and ampholytic connections, and other iodophore
Chloractive connection. Chloramine B - powder containing 26% active chlorine. 1 - 3% solution of chloramine used for disinfection in intestinal infections and infections transmitted by airborne droplets. Tuberculosis apply 5% solutions. Adding activators (ammonia in the ratio of 1 : 8 or ammonium salts in the ratio 1:1 and 1:2) increases the activity of bleach. Activated solutions of bleach is used in lower concentrations (0,25-1%).
Analogue of chloramine B is chloramine HB used in the same concentrations.
Bleaching powder (mixture of salts of calcium, contains active chlorine) - unstable product, therefore, must be stored in closed tight container in a dry cool place. Chloride lime is used in the form of clarified solutions and hornitutako milk.
Residential and industrial premises sterilized 0,2-0,5% working solutions of bleach prepared from 10% clarified the solution obtained by sedimentation. For preparation of 10 l of working solution take 200-500 ml source clarified 10% solution. Linen and other textiles, metal and painted objects bleach process in order to avoid spoilage. 10-20% hornesville milk used for disinfection of non-residential premises, outdoor installations, and other objects. Selection (urine, faeces, vomit, etc.,) fall asleep dry bleach rate of 200 g on 1 l or 1 kg of disinfected mass.
Detritiation salt of calcium hypochlorite (DTSGK) contains 47-56% active chlorine. The nature of disinfectant action close to bleach. The concentration of working solutions DTSGK in 2 times lower concentrations of bleach, as it contains 2 times more active chlorine.
Solutions DTSGK used for disinfection of premises, discharge, soil, asphalt and other environmental objects.
When intestinal and drip infections using 0.2-0.5% solutions. For disinfection tuberculosis and anthrax apply also activated solutions DTSGK. Tuberculosis effective 0.25% of activated solutions, and anthrax - 2% of the activated solutions DTSGK.
The most effective chloractive disinfectants are substances with a high content of active chlorine: dechloridation, dihlormetilgidantoina, dihlorizozianurat acid and its sodium and potassium salts and other Derived gidantoina contain 70-80% active chlorine and can be used to disinfect the intestinal and drip infections and fungal diseases in 0,025 - 0,1% solution. Sodium and potassium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid contain 56-59% active chlorine and recommended for disinfection of linen, toys, houseware, furniture, facilities in the 0.1-0.2% solution in infectious diseases and intestinal drip groups.

  • Phenol and its derivatives
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • Iodophore
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Formalin
  • Propiolacton