Discussion

Sometimes I found that the reaction vessels or heart has not one, not two, but three phases. Had to assume the existence no longer two but three types of fibers, and, apparently, the power and the threshold of each subsequent type grew relative to the previous.
Why would they need evolution to triple the number of autonomic neurons? It does not mean simply tripling the thickness of the relevant nerves. This is connected with triple the number of bodies of neurons, which is not that too spacious in close skull and spinal canal.
The flames were fanned by the famous physician and physiologist A. A. Ostroumov. He wrote in his article that the nerve roots does not inhibit vasoconstrictor center and excites vasodilator. Thus arose the idea of several types and centripetal and centrifugal neurons themselves and vasomotor centers.
All distortion of his (and ludwikowski) hypothesis Zion answered several articles in which he defended the homogeneity of the depressor nerves and vasomotor center. He argued that the expansion of blood vessels in the excitation depressant nerve may occur only by relaxation of vascular musculature, that is due to the decrease of intensity activity vasoconstrictor nerve fibers flowing to vascular muscles. As for the separate centre for vasodilator nerves of the sympathetic system, that, in opinion of Zion, it is just an illusion. Cion opposed raznostnoi neurons; in this respect, as with vasomotor center, he received some unexpected support from Rudolf HEIDENHAIN, whose laboratory in Jena was some opposition to Ludwig.
This opposition was not caused by differences in scientific opinions or even ideology. But if Ludwig shared already stated our point of view the Bridge and Dubois-Reymond about the fact that in the body there is nothing except the physical and chemical processes, HEIDENHAIN not less rightly believed that some of these processes are only in a living organism. Other scientists blamed for it HEIDENHAIN in vitalism and idealism, as long as I. P. Pavlov has said on this subject in the sense that HEIDENHAIN, in essence, does not mean anything else but that the physical and chemical processes in the body (at least some of these processes can be much more difficult than those found in the inorganic world, and that it should not be too optimistic to expect transcript in the near future all the phenomena of life.
Obviously, such a view has prompted HEIDENHAIN to respond to the publication of Zion and Ludwig article, where he highly appreciated the open and without considering the theory of "specific vasoconstrictor, and vasodilator" neurons and centers, spoke about a very complex integration of functions in the body. Integration is not an arithmetic summation, and article HEIDENHAIN, physiologist, almost equal in authority to the most Ludwig, did not count as nothing other than an expression of complete solidarity with Ludwig and Zion.
More specifically in support of the views of Zion and Ludwig made another major physiologist - Bayliss, spoke out against the theory of "specificity" of fibers and centers, it was, of course, serious moral support for Ziona. Interestingly, Karl Ludwig not responded to numerous publications "specificnim" any form of print - either for or against this interpretation of facts. Would signify that Ludwig ignores this interpretation? Or, on the contrary, silently agreeing with her? We should not forget that the views Ludwig at the time had a considerable influence Johann Muller, who, in addition to many famous research, was, unfortunately, and author of "the law of specific energies". Today we can say that this law is outdated, but still serious men and women who remain loyal to him, though not have face the facts, it contradicts.
Meanwhile, the number of studies on the nerve roots that grew. By the beginning of XX century it became clear that not only the vagus nerve and nerve roots, but almost all the nerves and the autonomic and sensory somatic,is able to exert on blood pressure ambiguous effects, that is, to raise or lower the pressure in the arteries depending on the strength of irritation on the frequency annoying incentives, and on the thickness of the nerve, or, in other words, the number irritated neurons *. Needless to say that all the authors interpret their data from the positions of the unfortunate law of specific energies Muller?

* Somatic nerves in contrast vegetative - sensory and motor nerves poperechnopolostah muscles and sensory nerves of the skin. In the structure of somatic nerves and the autonomic nervous fibers vessels.

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