The problem of longevity and methodology of the study

Pages: 1 2 3

The problem lifetime has passed a difficult and contradictory path of historical development. Many of its theoretical, methodological and practical aspects at the present time cannot be considered solved adequately.
The extension of the life of a Soviet man is one of the important state tasks in the period of the structure of a developed socialist society concerned with the preservation of life, health and work capacity of its members, the increase of labor resources and strengthen the economic power of the socialist state. The numerous data testify that in our country during the years of Soviet power has been significant positive changes in the level of active longevity of the population due to fundamental socio-economic reforms, improvement of the material and cultural standard of living for workers and a significant improvement in their health care. It is known that the correct forecasting of these processes for the future largely depends on the validity of the estimates of the growth of total population and the growth of labour resources required for the successful implementation of a number of important tasks of the national economic development plan of the USSR.
For a real implementation of the problems of increasing the life expectancy of the broad masses of the population it is necessary to penetrate deep into its essence. Many studies show that there is a real basis for raising the issue about the possibility of raising the upper age limits for the General population as they confirm the leading role in maintaining the health and increase the life expectancy of a person's socio-economic factors, which under certain conditions may be affected.
For centuries, thanks to the progressive development of the society, development of scientific knowledge, including in the field of medicine, raising the cultural level and the improvement of conditions of life of the population, steadily, albeit slowly, there was an increase in the life expectancy of the population. Especially rapidly this growth has been apparent since the beginning of the XX century. If for nearly 10 centuries (from the ninth to the nineteenth century) life expectancy changed very slowly and was, according to the approximate data, 30-40 years for the most developed countries of Europe (in. A. Alpatov, 1962; Rosset, 1968), at the present time, in some countries it reaches 70-75 years.
At a certain stage of development of human society, when as a result of advances in medicine and a slight improvement in the socio-economic and living conditions of the population has been reduced mortality and increased opportunity for many people to reach a high age boundaries, it became possible to talk about their longevity.
The diversity and complexity of the problem of longevity of the population allows us to consider it one of the most complex socio-biological problems of the present. It is closely intertwined with socio-economic, medical, hygienic, natural-geographic, genetic and psychological aspects. The external environment (social and physical), the man himself as the carrier of the biological and social characteristics, behavior and lifestyle, the ratio of social and biological factors in health and longevity are the single integral complex.
Many issues concerning longevity, have not received enough full scientific development. Especially little carried out in this direction of research of social-hygienic character. The first domestic work, in which attempts to consider the factors that affect the longevity of the population, include the monograph by S. A. nowosielski "Mortality and life expectancy in Russia" (St. Petersburg, 1916).