Modern features and indicators of longevity of the population in different countries of the world

Pages: 1 2

The range of fluctuations of the indices of the longevity of the world's population is extremely high. According to figures released by the UN in the period close to 1970, the extreme values of life expectancy born simultaneously (10) are as follows: maximum (Sweden) for men -71,7 years, for women - 76,5 years, minimum (the Republic of Guinea) - 26 and 28 years respectively.
Even more marked differences in levels of life expectancy of the population of the globe when comparing the respective characteristics across continents and regions of the world (according to the degree of economic development) (table. 29).
Significant scale of this indicator is explained not so much by the influence of various natural-climatic zones as social conditions, peculiarities of the individual elements of these conditions (nature of work and power, material security, housing and living conditions, the adequacy and quality of medical and social services, the level of public consciousness, the style of mutual relations between people and so on).
Significant discrepancy is revealed not only when comparing the life expectancy in developed and developing countries (see table. 30), but also within these groups of States located in the same geographical zones. Thus, among which we allocated more than 20 industrialized European countries and North America 1 average life expectancy at birth in the period close to 1970, varies among men from 71.7 years (Sweden) up to 64,3 year (Yugoslavia), and for women-from 76,5 to 68.9 years 2 respectively. This means that the difference between the extreme positions in this group of countries is 7.5 to 8.0 years.
The most complete and clear picture of the territorial nature of the longevity of the world's population obtained using as its measures corresponding parameters of the mortality tables (tables. 30).
In those European countries (in particular, a socialist who had suffered great loss of life and considerable economic damage, and population health was undermined by the hardships of the war and Nazi occupation, indicators of longevity is somewhat lower than in neutral countries or countries that are less affected by the first and second world wars.
In most countries of Asia and Africa, still in a semi-colonial dependence or newly independent development, the level of longevity, usually low. The relatively high levels in some countries in this group may be associated with certain inaccuracies in the age living and lack of completeness of the dead, which affects the quality of the materials mortality tables.
Convincing proof of the role of socio-economic influences obtained in the study of the nature and pace of the changes that have occurred in terms of longevity of the population of many countries of the world since the beginning of our century. Here was evident advantages of the socialist system. The increase of living to long years of age and then experiencing it in the socialist countries is higher than in capitalist. If 1900 1965, the number of surviving to 80 years (180) has changed among men in Sweden from 16.2 to 34 thousand per 100,000 births, in the Netherlands - from 11.3 to 33,6 thousand (or increased by 2 and 3 times respectively), in Hungary - from 6.6 to 25.7 thousand3.

1. Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, the USA, Finland, France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Sweden, Yugoslavia.
2. Demographic Yearbook. N. Y., United Nations, 1971.
3. Demographic Yearbook. N. Y., United Nations, 1957-1970.