Why longevity - a social problem?

That the duration of a person's life depends on social factors and longevity is a social problem, leading scientists have known for a long time. Have cited the data obtained in the last century in Germany: the wealthy live an average of 50 years, the poor - 32 years. Note that the average duration of life of the population of tsarist Russia in 1913 was also 32 years. Of course, and then some people lived to extreme old age, but one lived to be 80 years old had dozens of persons who died from various diseases in youth, and on average it turned out that people live just 32 years.
Social factors are determined and different life expectancy for men and women. It is well known that women live longer. Boys born a little more - as if with a stock. In different countries this stock is different in the USSR for 100 girls born on average 105 boys. However, males drop down faster, and for 80 years, as one of the hygienist, one grandfather have already 2.5 grandmother. The main role here, as it is considered that social factors play: more common among men of military, industrial and domestic accidents. And of course, Smoking and alcoholism.
However, there are some statements that male lower life expectancy determined by nature itself. So, at the Congress of gerontology in 1972 spoke English scientist Hamilton. He examined more than 200 species of mammals and found that most of them males live on less. Moreover, cats-neuter, according to him, live longer than normal svatnii. Of course, here one could argue the following : Among 200 species of mammals met, even in the minority, and those where live longer male. People would have had enough reason to join this group. Because men ripen later (puberty they finish later women), age too later than women (menopause in men occurs at an older age), so it would seem, and men should live longer. As for the cats to alter the life of their runs much quieter than normal cats, obviously enjoying less attention of the owners, and also experiencing annually such battles on the roofs, which can't help shorten their life.
More interesting considerations Soviet scientist of Geodakian. He advanced the idea that male organisms are like the scouts of evolution. Females are more responsible for procreation. Therefore, nature cannot by them to risk and provide them with the same set of proven, waste properties. In the end, the female body is more reliable. However, evolution must go forward, we need to try new properties that can provide even more effective adaptation to conditions of existence. Yes and conditions change. The more important to create and test new features. They then nature and is awarded mainly male organisms that way or are sacrificed, if they will show themselves unworthy, or brought forward if the new features that will be useful and successful. Of course, such a favorable characteristics may be in the minority, because nature blindly creates new properties, supplying them as food for natural selection. As a result, the majority of males are less viable than being the weaker sex, and dies before. Minority demonstrates improved reliability and vitality. From this point of view, we would expect that after all the Champions of longevity should be men. Life has confirmed this assumption. If at 80 years female 2.5 times more then 120 years from 20 centenarians to the male sex are 19. Such data are important confirmation of the hypothesis of Geodakian.
Anyway, social factors, in the opinion of the overwhelming majority of researchers, are the main reason to shorten the life of the male population. If the hypothesis of Geodakyan is true, then social factors are accelerating the disposal of the operation of the mass males, who already not happy with the set obtained from the nature of the properties. On average, men live in different countries on 7 - 12 years less than women.
Does the role of longevity of heredity? Of course, it is of great importance. There are families from generation to generation people differ enviable life expectancy. One Italian scientist, traveling to the country saw at the edge of the village an old man who was sitting on the steps of the house and cried bitterly. He was eighty years. The scientist asked him why he was crying, not offended if grandchildren? The old man replied, "No, my dad punished!" Scientist interested, entered the house and saw that there is noisy sturdy old man, which, according to the son, would be about 100 years. The scientist asked, "what are you punished son?" The answer came: "For disobedience and laziness - refused to help my grandfather". It turned out that the family still has a 140-year-old grandfather. Similar examples are found. It is clear that heredity here goes along two lines. First, it is the inheritance of genetic and passed not so much in itself is a possibility for a long life but above all a strong health, lack of hereditary predisposition to particular diseases. People with good health naturally and live longer. Second, is set to heredity, are not related to genes, to biology. It can be called a micro-social.
From generation to generation is a healthy way of life of the family - a habit to work, normal moderate food, healthy family life. Good relations between people, a favorable psychological climate are of great importance. Not accidentally say misfortune nervous child is not in the fact that he was born of the nervous parents, and that he has to live with them. There are indeed cases of marital longevity, when genetic factors are different, people in consanguinity are not. It is clear that available to both spouses genetic background of longevity was implemented thanks to the relevant conditions of family life.
It is the understanding that the interaction of internal and external factors, heredity and environment, allows you to answer the question of what determines the longevity of some of the peoples living in the mountainous area. Sometimes suggest that there are any special external conditions conducive to longevity. To this question there is no single answer. Play the role and the gene pool, and living conditions. Good gene pool of the mountain people is determined by the selection: a weak and ailing people wouldn't go to the mountains. To live there were heroes - people especially strong health, great stamina, and endurance. Communication with the plain was not close, strong family intermarried with each other. Just was formed in the mountains, isolated groups of the population with favorable heredity. Realization of genetic possibilities longevity helped and living conditions: physical labor in the fresh air, healthy food, etc. At present, more intensive communication highlanders with the inhabitants of the plains, mixed marriages between them lead to a hardening of the gene pool of the mountaineers hereditary predisposition to certain diseases - and the possibility of reduced longevity.
It is important to note that in our days the social environment imperiously interfere in family life, and family patterns - both genetic and micro-social - become a back seat. From them remains a little. American insurance company before the second world war left a very interesting statistical study. They were interested, whether equal chances to live up to 80 years (and, therefore, the same whether the right to be insured up to this age up to a certain amount) are people whose parents died early - To 60 years, and those whose parents lived for a long time - more than 75 years. On the huge material compared the two groups. It turned out that when the difference in life expectancy parents over 15 years, the difference between their children did not exceed 2-3 years. Therefore began to insure, not taking into account the life expectancy of the parents.

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