Methodological issues of health study of centenarians

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Great merits in developing and improving special programs of study, age and longevity belong S. P. Botkin, under whose leadership executed a number of works of such a plan, completed in 1890-1905,, 3. G. Frankel (1949), first performed in 1926, a survey of 250 centenarians Leningrad, and S. A. Tomilino (1938), who was the originator of the socio-hygienic program of expedition to Abkhazia. These scientists developed the theory and methods of studying the factors that contribute to the longevity and influencing the formation of physiological ageing and active longevity. Among the works performed in the later period in different regions of our country, which along with the individual elements of the lifestyle of centenarians described the peculiarities of their health, include studies I. B.. Shapiro et al. (1955, 1956), held in Abkhazia and Khakassia, Yu. A. Spasokukotskogo (1962) - Ukraine, R. W. Amikishieva (1966) - in Dagestan, N. C. Makataeva (1957) - in Bashkiria, D. Berdysheva (1968)-in Altai, , 3. Pitskhelauri et al. (1966, 1968) in Georgia.
The fragmentation of programmes and sources of information on centenarians, sometimes insufficient attention to checking their true age and in some cases small samples led to contradictory results, not allowed to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the health status of centenarians different regions of the country.
A particular result of a new stage in the deployment of in-depth research, particularly clinical-physiological, is a collection of "long-Livers" (1973) 1 including 16 works of social-hygienic character.
A milestone in identifying the main trends in the formation of health of centenarians and establishing its relations with the environment was great medical and social examination, covering about 40 000 persons aged 80 years and older, conducted in the early 60-ies under the guidance of the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR in 6 of the Union republics.
Mass character of the survey, his careful preparation, the scope of various natural-economic regions of the Soviet Union, the comparability of collected under a single program and methodology 2 materials, special control of the calendar age of centenarians as soon as it was possible to obtain reasonably reliable data, versatile characterizing the health and lifestyles of long-livers of our country.
Source for revealing the persons subject to examination, was the lists with addresses of persons 80 years and more registered during the Soviet census. When selecting contingents combined breeding and mechanical sampling: in the selected pre-typical areas or areas was noted for persons over 90 years (main group) and one in five in the age 60-89 years (control group).
The survey results presented in this paper apply to the following territories: Ukrainian SSR -19277 people (5,3% of all diagnosed patients studied age), Byelorussian SSR -2790 (sample size is 3.3%), the Lithuanian SSR -2746 (8,2%), the Moldavian SSR -17,11 (10,9%), Kyrgyz SSR - 1527 (8,7%), the Abkhazian ASSR -1398 (29,5%) of people 80 years and older 3. In the total number of surveyed was 9207 longevity at age 90 and older.
Health in this study were considered in the social-hygiene plan with the specific socio-economic and socio-hygienic conditions in these areas. As long people are specific age population, the representatives of which pronounced pathological processes, as a rule, on the background of significant age-related changes in organs and systems in the program of this study and in the light of its results, special attention was paid a kind of integral health criteria characterizing the degree of preservation of balance between body long man and the environment. Such criteria are found in scattered state in different sources of literature, supplemented with some new indicators grouped and classified. Conditionally they are indicators of the overall health long and isolated in a separate section.
As the main criteria of health of centenarians were used: integrated health, General health, degree of mobility, participation in work at home, the ability to self-service, the safety of interest in the environment, state of mind, visual acuity and hearing and number of remaining teeth.
Classification of the General indicators of health was carried out in accordance with a study of three conventional categories of health that reflect various aspects of the functional state of the surveyed: "physical, mental and social health.

1. Gerontology and geriatrics. 1972. Long-livers. Kiev, 1973.
2. Map examination of persons 80 years and older", "instruction on the procedure for medical examination and filling card examination of persons 80 years and older", developed in the laboratory of demography and health statistics of the Institute of gerontology of AMS of the USSR.
3. For the survey in these areas organized by the Republican gerontological centers, the management of which in this period was entrusted A. I. Jurgelionio, A. I. Popov, G. 3. Pitskhelauri, HP Bormio, A. B. The Kozhukhar, G. N. Sichinava, 3. I. Serbiei. Statistical processing of materials produced and Computing centre of CSO of the USSR (M E, Leviticus).