Methodological issues of health study of centenarians

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As a rule, the health of the population is associated with a certain temporal and spatial situation is seen historically specific socio-economic and natural conditions. If this interpretation health is determined in the light of the factors affecting it, or from a position of importance for society and evaluated a number of indicators. Speaking about the public entity health, G. I. Tsaregorodtsev notes that it "is a manifestation of the normal functioning of the human body, which is his ability to perform public duties..."1.
As defined in the Charter of the who, "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and disability". An essential condition of health is "the ability of harmonious life in all changing environment".
To health characteristics were quite full and proved to be useful for rational planning of therapeutic and preventive measures, it is important to pursue the development of relevant materials according to the age structure of the population.
Meanwhile, human health in different age periods studied enough, especially of long-livers. At the same time, the study of the health of the people of a deep old age enables not only the right approach to solving the question of the organization of specialized care for this group of people, but also to clarify a number of issues that are beyond the scope of this age category. Health of centenarians is to some extent a reflection of the socio-hygienic condition? of the total population, measure of the impact of environmental conditions. Study of peculiarities of health among this age group, the generalization of data of static and dynamic monitoring of functioning of different systems of the body gives an opportunity to Supplement the General characteristics of human aging and first of all physiological age.
In the literature there are almost no works devoted to the study of health of centenarians. These questions usually presented in the form of small sections or parts of the General studies, contains statistical materials about the health of the entire population, or included in the work concerning the study of different aspects of life long people. Only in some works for the common morbidity based on the data of visits to medical institutions, selected age group 80 years and older, in General, without distinguishing the persons older than 90 years. Considering that by this age because of the loss of mobility, as was shown in our previous studies, sharply reduced the level of requests for medical assistance, it is clear limited opportunities to study the health of elderly people and especially of long-livers.
An important stage in the study of health and lifestyle of centenarians was the expedition to Abkhazia, organised by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR on the initiative of Acad. A. A. Bogomolets in 1937 and 1938 Despite the small number of cases (about 40 persons aged 90 years and over), the results of the studies that were presented at the first gerontology conference (Kyiv, 1938) and synthesized a number of authors in the collection "old Age" (1939) 2, provided the impetus for further, more extensive research.

1. Tsaregorodtsev, I. Dialectical materialism and medicine. M., Medgiz, 1963, S. 237.
2. The old age. Proceedings of the conference on the problem of Genesis of old age and prevention of premature aging. Kiev. 1939.