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The composition of industrial dust is separated into organic (plant dust - wood, cotton and others), animal (wool, bone and other), synthetic organic dust (plastic and others), inorganic (mineral quartz, silica and other), metal (iron, steel, aluminium and others), radioactive and mixed (the grinding of metal, Stripping casting and others). In the industrial dust particles can be various chemical substances. Minor by privrzenost have, for example, calcium carbonate and magnesium oxide. By the poisonous substances include caustic soda, caustic lime, caustic potash, which with humidity of mucous membranes form of alkali. Dust containing arsenic, mercury and lead, can lead to poisoning.
Coal dust, falling into the light that is absorbed by the phagocytes and largely removed from the lungs. Quartz dust is removed slowly and builds up in the lungs (see Pneumoconiosis).
In order to prevent occupational diseases shall carry out measures on rationalization of technological process aimed at eliminating dust (applying a wet method of crushing, grinding and mixing of the material, the use of metal fractions instead of sand castings cleaning, sealing processes, accompanied by the formation of dust aspiration of dusty air from the equipment and its purification, equipment, ventilation systems at the source of dust and General ventilation device). Great importance is the introduction of continuous processes instead of periodically; it is reasonable to apply automatic control, does not require the presence of the people. For dedusting use irrigation materials water by spraying it with a special injectors. Gidroponiki and hydrotransport of coal completely eliminate dust formation. Remote control of machines that work in the mines, frees a person from breathing dust, wet drilling reduce the dust content of the air in 10-50 times. The main measures of prevention against radioactive dust is the careful sealing of the process, isolation works in boxes and flueblocks.
To individual prevention measures include the use of respirators and gas masks (see); the most widespread respirators with a large surface paper filters and radioactive dust respirators type "Petal". To avoid eye damage dust particles use protective goggles. Personal hygiene, clean overalls, daily wash in the shower after work is the prevention of skin diseases. Of great importance in the fight against dust on the production has the proper use of sanitary facilities and the organization of systematic monitoring of dust content in air of industrial premises. This dust samples taken in the area of respiratory working at the moment of the greatest dust in the period, the most characteristic of the production process. A role in the prevention of diseases caused by dust, playing preliminary and periodic medical examinations. The revealed patients transferred to work not connected with allocation of harmful existing dust, and establish clinical supervision.