Respiratory system

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Of all the chemical elements necessary for life, only the oxygen absorbed by the body in pure form or in a gaseous state. Oxygen entering the body in this form, is used to carry out oxidation reaction, with his participation is "burning" of some organic substances in the cell, resulting in energy, providing all the activities of the body. It is known that the body of every organism consists of innumerable cells; each of them is the small cell life and focus his energy. Oxidation is the only source of energy for all vertebrate animals and humans, so it is clear that life for these creatures is impossible without oxygen. Fortunately, the oxygen supply in the nature surrounding us is huge and available to everyone! We live at the bottom of the boundless air ocean, consisting of nitrogen (79,04%). oxygen (20,93%) and carbon dioxide (0,03%). For every square kilometer of the Earth is approximately 2 million tons of oxygen! The circulation of substances occurring in nature, supports the constancy of the composition of the atmosphere. The consequence of such availability is necessary for life oxygen is that in animals and man is not formed any of its reserves. Therefore oxygen demand turns out to be sharper than the need for food or in water: if a man can live without food for more than a month without water for 10 days without oxygen, life fades away through 4-7 minutes! As a result of oxidation of organic substances produced water and carbon dioxide (CO2), which is excreted into the atmosphere. Thus, along with the exchange of a number of substances entering the body with meal, necessary for life and gas exchange - the absorption of oxygen and selection of carbon dioxide, which is the essence of the process of breathing. In the ordinary sense of the word under the breath understand inhale and exhale air, which is regularly alternated, i.e. the work of the respiratory apparatus, the outward manifestation of which is known to everyone. However, in reality things are much more complicated. Breath of a multicellular organism consists of breathing each of countless cells of our body. This means that each cell must continue to receive oxygen and release into the environment of carbonic gas. Therefore, the act of respiration includes several stages:
1. Oxygen from inhaled air into the blood - external breathing.
2. Oxygen delivery to cells with blood and tissue fluid outflow of carbon dioxide from the cells through the tissue fluid and blood in the exhaled air - transport of gases.
3. The absorption of oxygen by cells, tissue respiration.
Violation of any of these stages gas exchange leads to severe respiratory distress.
Let us consider, as are respiratory function and what conditions are necessary for their normal departure.

the scheme of the structure of the respiratory system.
Fig. 16. The scheme of the structure of the respiratory system:
1 - nasal cavity; 2 - SIP; 3 - the larynx; 4 - trachea; 5 - a major bronchi; 6 - light; 7 - aperture.

The air flow into the body is ensured by the system of bodies of breath (Fig. 16). From their work largely depends on the efficiency of gas exchange. Breathing apparatus consists of two departments: tubular bodies performing air, and lungs where gas exchange takes place between blood and air. Both departments are very closely linked.
Air enters through the nasal cavity, throat, then in the larynx, from there, into the trachea and bronchi. All these bodies constitute the airway and provide transport of air into the lungs. However, it would be wrong to think that their function is limited only by conducting air. It is particularly important in the act of breathing nasal cavity. You can, of course, to breathe the air and through the mouth, but, as we will see below, такойvcnoco6 breathing significantly less effective. The walls of the nasal cavity are uneven relief, which increases the surface of the mucous membrane lining her; numerous blood vessels mucous perform like the role of water heating, fueling the inhaled air to a temperature of the body; in addition, nasal cavity communicates with its surrounding pneumatic cavities (sinuses), located in the nearby bones; I believe that the mixing of air inhaled with the air contained in these sinuses, also contributes to the warming *. Contact with mucous, inhaled air is humidified and cleaned from dust particles that settle on a thin layer of mucus covering the shell. But particularly important have numerous end sensitive nerves embedded in the nasal cavity and, in particular, the end of the olfactory nerves carrying out a peculiar chemical composition control of the inhaled air. Professor C. K. Trutnev specifies that when a person breathes through the nose, then the organism gets air on 25% more than when he breathes through the mouth. This is because in the mucosa of the nasal cavity branches of the trigeminal nerve, reinforcing respiratory lung function. Doctors have long noted that at blockage of nasal breathing is significantly more frequently observed lung disease. Violation of the right of nasal breathing, often associated with diseases of the nose and pharynx, leads to a weakening of the higher nervous activity not only children but also adults. Violation of nasal breathing is thus not only of local importance but has a negative effect on the whole body.

* These sinuses, moreover, probably, are resonators our vocal apparatus.