Esters

Esters are organic substances, formed by taking the water molecules from two molecules of alcohol (simple ethers) or the alcohol molecules and molecules acid esters - esters). Ethers volatile and poorly soluble in water, good dissolving fats. Some of them are used in medicine, such as diethyl or sulfur, ether is used for inhalation narcosis (see Ethyl ester).
Esters are part of the essential oils, causing their pleasant smell, used in the food and perfume industry. To esters are many biologically important substances - nucleic acids, carbohydrates, fats, phosphatides, vitamins, and medications - urethane, ester of salicylic and para-aminobenzoic acid (benzocaine, novocaine), and other

Esters are organic substances formed as a result of taking the water molecules from two molecules of alcohol (ethers, or Atari) or from the alcohol molecules and molecules acid esters, or esters).
Simple Economics can be considered as a substitute products in the water molecule, both atoms hydrocarbon radicals. These radicals can be the same or different (in the latter case, E. called mixed). The names of esters is usually produced from the names of the radicals, are part of them (for example, CH3 - O - C2N5 - metalecology ether). Geneva item name E. produced from the name of hydrocarbon, corresponding to more radical, with the prefix, which is the name of alkoxylate with less radical (for example, CH3 - O - C3N7 - methoxypropan).
Ethers, typically receive from alcohols by the esterification reaction, i.e. taking away of water molecules under the action vodootnimajushchih means (sulfuric, phosphoric acid, zinc chloride, copper sulfate, and others). Simple Economics derived from lower alcohols, boil at a lower temperature than the corresponding alcohols. Dimethyl and metalecology E. at room temperature gases, starting with diethyl ether - liquid. Simple E. easily dissolved organic matter, water do not mix. This is based on their use (especially diethyl ether) for the extraction.
Ethers - neutral substance, it is difficult entering reactions. They are not hydrolyzed, and for their decomposition are concentrated uudistevoogude acid sodium or metal when heated (reaction Sharygina). With mineral acids E. give salt substituted hydronium. In medicine used ethyl (diethyl), "sulfur", ether; used for anaesthesia (see Ethyl ester).
Esters - derivatives of spirits, in which the hydrogen hydroxyl replaced remaining acids (organic or mineral). Method tracer it was shown that the formation of esters hydroxyl disrupted by acid, and hydrogen from alcohol. Esters are called in those acids and alcohols, remains of which are in their composition (for example, the ethyl ester of acetic acid and ethyl acetate).
Esters produced more often when interacting acids and alcohols in the presence of consuming water resources (usually concentrated sulphuric acid) - esterification reaction, at least in the action anhydrides, acid alcohols, interaction salts of acids with metal-halide alkelai, halides acids with alcoholate.
Esters simplest acids and alcohols is a liquid with a pleasant fruity fragrance. Most of them poorly soluble in water, well in the organic solvent. Complex E. easily hydrolyzed with the formation of acid and alcohol (saponification reaction). Restoration of esters leads to the formation of spirits. Under the action of ammonia complex E. turn into amides.
Complex E. quite common in nature and largely determine the aromas of flowers, fruits and berries. Many E. find application in the national economy and medicine. E. nitric acid are explosives. Isoamyl ether nitrous acid (amyl nitrate) is used in medicine for breast toad as a means of widening the blood vessels. Some esters are organic acids (solidaritat, ethyl butyrate, and others) used for the manufacture of artificial fruit essences used in the production of confectionery and cosmetics. To complex E. are many biologically important substances - nucleic acid (polyesters phosphoric acid and nucleosides), fats, some biostimulants (acetylcholine). Complex E. are many medicinal substances: ester of salicylic acid, para-aminobenzoic acid (benzocaine, novocaine), antibiotics and other