Eggs

Eggs are a valuable and easily digestible food product. The chemical composition of eggs (per 100 g): protein - 12.5 g, fat -12,0 g, carbohydrates - 0,5, Caloricity - 165 kcal.
Depending on the quality, weight and storage of eggs are divided into diet and eating. Shelf life diet eggs should not exceed 7 days after the demolition. Long-term storage of eggs (over 30 days) is due at temperature from + 1 degree to -2 degrees and relative humidity of 85-88%. In addition, the eggs can be stored in the atmosphere, ozone or carbon dioxide, and immersed in some environments (saturated solution of bleach, liquid glass). Sometimes use of protective coating - vegetable and mineral oil, resin-paraffin mass, etilzelluloza.
Diseased birds eggs can be infected by germs of the genus Salmonella. Eating eggs of this kind, especially ducks and geese may lead to the occurrence of foodborne diseases (see). Eggs waterfowl are allowed to use at the enterprises of food industry only to add to the dough, subjected to heat treatment. Similarly implemented chicken eggs from farms where there are cases of disease of birds tuberculosis. The sale of these eggs in a trade network, preparation of these creams, ice cream, mayonnaise and so on is prohibited.
Products of processing of eggs, egg powder, frozen egg whites and melange (a frozen mixture of protein and egg yolks) - are prepared under strict sanitary control. Special attention is paid to the preliminary cleaning and disinfection of the shell, as well as on the quality of the air in the premises.
The use of eggs as food is limited in diseases of the liver and gallbladder, kidneys and urinary tract infections, hypertension, some skin diseases, diathesis in children and nutrition of persons of old age.

Eggs (birds) is one of the most valuable in terms of nutritional value and easy digestibility of food. The highest value for food have chicken, duck and goose eggs.
In the protein eggs are the so-called hradynky - dense protein fibers that hold fresh egg yolk in a Central position; in the blunt end of the egg has a cavity (SLAs). Its height in svezhenanesennoj the egg does not exceed 2 mm; in storage due to drying content eggs puga increases. Shell eggs is riddled with pores through which the inside of the egg can penetrate microbes. Shell consists of carbonic acid calcium salt (94%), magnesium (1,3%), phosphates CA, Mg (1.7%) and organic substances (3%).
Eggs of different birds are similar in composition (structure chicken eggs - see the table).

The nutrient content in chicken egg (in %)
Name nutrients Egg in General Protein Yolk
Proteins
Fats
Carbohydrates
Ash
Water
12,5
12,0
0,5
1,0
74,0
12,5
-
0,5
0,5
86,5
1,7,3
31,2
0,5
1,0
50,0

In the egg white contains albumin, globulins, lysozyme, avidin and other proteins (mainly albumin). Avidin is an antagonist of Biotin. Egg white and yolk contains many amino acids.
Fat yolk contains linolenic and other unsaturated fatty acids in the composition of the yolk also includes lecithin (8 - 10%) and cholesterol (1,7-2%).
In the ashes eggs (without shell) contains (mg%): Ca - 43, Fe - 2,1, R - 184, Mg - 10, K - 116; especially rich in their yolk. The eggs are also vitamin a - 0.6 mg% (in the yolk - 0,96 mg%), thiamine - 0.14 mg% (in the yolk - 0,32 mg%), Riboflavin - 0,69 mg % (in the yolk - 0,52 mg%), nicotinic acid - 0.20 mg%; according to some reports, the eggs contain vitamin B12 (ciankobalamin).
The absorption of the eggs is very high. Food substances yolk (proteins, fats, and others) are biologically more valuable than similar substances of protein.
Fresh egg laid by a healthy bird, usually sterile. When stored in appropriate conditions of its sterility may persist for a long time. The egg can become infected in genitals sick birds (see Salmonella), and birds-bakterionositelej. The storage of these eggs (primarily ducks) in non-refrigerated condition leads to a vast accumulation, mainly in the yolk, bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Contamination of eggs, especially with contaminated shell may and exogenous way. Seeding eggs contaminated with shell when stored in several times more than the net eggs. Described are many cases of food poisoning caused by the consumption of infected eggs.
For the prevention of foodborne disease (see) duck and goose eggs under the sanitary legislation of the USSR allowed to use in food industry only to add to the dough going on manufacture of rusks, biscuits, muffins, and other items exposed to high heat treatment. The sale of these eggs in a trade network, and the use for cooking cream, ice cream, mayonnaise, culinary products in public catering establishments is prohibited.
The best way to destroy Salmonella - chlorination (1.2 to 1.5% active Cl in solution) for 3 minutes at temperature from 16 to 20 degrees. Salmonella die when boiling eggs for 8 minutes (the time of boiling water), when the temperature inside the egg yolk reaches 80 degrees. Eggs, surface infected with Pastorelli (see Pasteurellosis)are the same chlorine solution in 10 minutes of exposure and 0.5% solution of hydrated lime by 6-hour exposure.


The quality of the eggs is determined by external inspection and using ovoscope - device with a bright light source, which is fit for radiographic eggs.
Products of processing of eggs frozen egg melange, frozen egg whites, frozen egg yolks, egg powder. Frozen egg melange is prepared from fresh or holodilnikov chicken eggs. Before the breakdown of the egg wash disinfecting solution (bleach and others) and water. Released from shell egg weight is filtered, thoroughly mixed and frozen in a special container (tin hermetically sealed jars); adding to 0.8% sodium chloride or 5% of sugar.
Separated from the rest mass of frozen eggs whites or yolks are handled the same way as melange.
The color of melange in ice cream able dark orange, after thawing light yellow or light orange taste specific characteristic of the eggs. Not allowed odors. The lead content in frozen products is not allowed. After opening banks, the product is highly perishable, as in the manufacturing process it is still exposed to contamination by microorganisms (cocci, mold, partly E. coli and other). Frozen products are used only in the system of public catering and food industry enterprises for the manufacture all the products that the conditions of production are heated to the temperature optimum pasteurization (manufacture of mixtures for ice-cream, dishes, subject to frying or cooking, and others). E-coli frozen egg products must not be lower than 0.1 ml; products with e-coli below 0.1 ml may be used only for products from the test at high heat treatment.
Egg powder - light-yellow, homogeneous powder with easy crushing lumps with taste and smell, peculiar to fresh egg; nutrient concentrate fully preserves the nutritional value of eggs. Its composition (in %): water not more than 9, protein (on dry matter) - not less than 45, fat - 35, ash - 4; solubility (in terms of dry substance) - 85%. The acidity of not exceeding 10 degrees, e-coli - not below 0.1 ml of the B Vitamins are preserved in full, the amount of vitamin a somewhat reduced. Powder used in food only in culinary products, when heat treatment provides reliable sterilization of the product. After opening the packaging, egg powder, usually containing large amounts of fat, quickly deteriorates due to oxidation of fat oxygen.