Electrotherapy

Electrotherapy (or electrotherapy) is the application with the purpose of treatment of different types of electricity. Based on the property of certain types of electrical energy at therapeutic doses to change the functional state of organs and systems.
The energy of electrotherapy is applied to the body in the form of electric current, magnetic or electric fields and their combinations. Energy is determined by the place of its absorption in tissues and nature of primary physical-biological processes that underlie reactions of the whole organism. Apply the General, local and segmental effects. The body in all cases responds to impact as a whole, but depending on the area of application of energy for the reaction can be both General and mostly local in nature. When segmental methods impact on superficial reflexogenic zones responses and deeply buried bodies receiving innervation from the same segment of the spinal cordthat these zones. While all methods are manifested common to many physical factors of the so-called non-specific reactions in the form of increasing blood circulation, metabolism, trophism of tissues. However, the effect of each factor is characterized by peculiar only to him by specific reactions. So, galvanic current causes a redistribution of ions and change of biochemical processes in tissues. Acting as a biological stimulant, it promotes the processes of restoration of impaired nerve conduction. The use of this current with the simultaneous introduction with it through intact skin of small amounts of drugs (see Electrophoresis, medicinal substances) provides an active force them for a long time.
Fixed and variable pulse currents (see Pulse current) can cause depending on the frequency, intensity and other parameters, increasing braking processes in the Central nervous system, pain and improve circulation action, muscle contraction. Pulsed high-frequency currents (see Darsonvalization, local), raising high-frequency discharges receptors of the skin and deep-lying bodies and lowering of excitability of nervous system, liquidate spasm of blood vessels. When exposed to high-frequency pulsed magnetic field (see Darsonvalization, General) in the tissues induced weak eddy currents, influenced by increasing metabolism and can be dealt with functional disorders of the nervous system. AC continuous magnetic field is much greater frequency and intensity (see inductothermy) suggests in the body of intensive eddy currents, which resulted in the tissues is generated considerable heat and conditions are created for backward development subacute and chronic inflammatory processes.
Under the influence of a constant electric field of high voltage (see Franklinization) change the ratio of charges tissues throughout the body and improves the functional state of the nervous system, the blood processes and metabolism. In addition, the action have also air ions, ozone and nitrogen oxides formed during the "quiet" discharge. The electric field of ultra-high frequency (see UHF-therapy), causing rotation and oscillation dipole protein molecules fabrics, acting mainly on tissue close to the physical properties of the dielectric (nerves, tendons, fat, bone, brain tissue), and has a healing effect not only chronic but also with acute, including purulent inflammatory processes.
Electromagnetic oscillations ultra high frequency (see Microwave therapy)absorbed by the tissue fluids, cause local heat buildup on depth up to 4-5 see Electromagnetic oscillations UHF at the same mechanism of energy absorption and action on the tissues of the body provide a deeper and more uniform heating of them and have a therapeutic effect in various subacute and chronic inflammatory processes.
Indications - see articles devoted to various kinds of electrotherapy (Darsonvalization, Pulse current, inductothermy and others).
Contraindications for electrotherapy are malignant neoplasms, predisposition to the bleeding, fresh significant bleeding in oral or tissue, expressed lack of heart activity, pregnancy.

Electrotherapy (electrotherapy) - the use of electrical energy for therapeutic purposes.
Depending on the structure of electric current, the direction, intensity, frequency, duration of exposure, designated applications, combinations with other curative factors, and depending on the stage of the disease, individual reactions to certain types of electrical energy treatment for electric shock caused different reactions in tissues, organs and body systems. Neurohumoral and serverelement by different types of electrotherapy regulate the function of the nervous system, metabolic, endocrine organs, blood and lymph circulation and other Most stable effect is achieved when treating patients in subacute, and in some cases in the acute period of the disease. Some types of electrotherapy in some cases is contraindicated, such as the use teensyoung current in spastic paralysis, diathermy (long and medium wave) - septic processes, with no way out of pus, etc. should Not be used electrotherapy patients with circulatory failure III extent hypertensive disease III stage, the acute bleeding, malignant diseases and other Some patients cannot tolerate certain types of electrotherapy.
Electric current is used in continuous and in pulsed mode. Types of electric current used for therapeutic purposes are listed in the table.

The basic means of electrotherapy
DC Alternating current
Continuous low current
a) galvanic
b) electrophoresis

The pulse current low voltage
a) rectangular (Leduc current)
b) etansarii (faradic)
in) exponential (currents branches wrapping)
Dynamic current (current Bernard)
Constant electric field of high voltage - static electricity (franklinization)


Low current
a) sine
b) interfering
in) sinusoidal modulated
The high-frequency currents
a) d'arsonval currents (pulse current of high frequency)
b) diathermy
High frequency electromagnetic field
a) General darsonvalization (autoindustrie)
b) inductothermy (short-wave diathermy)
C) continuous electromagnetic field UHF
g) pulsed electromagnetic field UHF
d) microwave

Continuous DC low voltage. Galvanization (see) improves the permeability of membranes of cells, enhances lymph circulation, promotes the resorption of decay products, improves trophism and regeneration of tissues, accelerates the restoration of nerve conduction. These changes depend on the reactivity of the organism, a pathological process, the reaction of the CNS dry skin has a DC resistance; the conductivity of the skin and different fabrics different lines of force of a current in a variety of tissues distributed unevenly. Galvanic current through the skin and mucous membranes in the body administering substances (see Electrophoresis of medicinal). Earlier this impact was called iontophoresis, inegalitarian etc. A. E. Shcherbak has developed the doctrine about "ionic reflexes", in which, along with local skin reflex response occurs General reaction of the body.
Medicinal substances are entered galvanic current, even in small quantities, longer held in the tissues, significantly reduced side effects, slowing inactivation of some substances (e.g. antibiotics). In these processes, in addition to changing reactivity tissue (under the influence of a galvanic current), can play a role and influence of the current structure of medicinal substance.
Pulse constant currents low voltage (see the Pulse current) increased inhibitory processes in brain, apply for elektronnoi therapy (see); etansarii (previously called faradic) current reduces skeletal muscles is used electrogymnastics and classical electric diagnostics; exponential current (branches wrapping) the structure resembles the current actions nerve, causing motor reaction and superficial muscles, mainly used for electrogymnastics.
Dynamic current (Bernard) - constant pulsating, rectified sinusoidal current, used in various versions (single or two-phase, with short or long periods, and others); one of the most effective anesthetic agents in acute, subacute and chronic lesions of the peripheral nervous system, muscles, joints, etc.
Constant electric field of high voltage (see Franklinization). Effect of the electric field and charged particles of air - air ions of ozone and nitrogen oxides. The influence affect the whole body, expands peripheral circulation, increasing trophic function of the nervous system, stimulates hematopoiesis and metabolism.
AC low voltage - interfering (Inmobiliaria). Current is formed by the addition of two alternating current with frequency 3900-4000 Hz and 3990-4000 Hz; the interference is created in the frequency range 10-100 Hz; Inmobiliaria acts directly on deeply located tissues and organs, causing the blockade path between the lesion and the Central nervous system. Is used to treat nagnoenia inflammatory diseases, some lesions of muscles and nervous system with marked pain syndrome.
Sinusoidal modulated currentsobtained from the apparatus "Amplipuls-3", characterized by a carrier frequency 5000 Hz and modulations in frequency from 10 to 150 Hz and amplitude from 0 to the maximum value; has a strong analgesic effect and effect on the nervous trophism.
The high-frequency currents. The pulse current of high frequency and voltage - local darsonvalization (see) - with a frequency of 300 to 400 kHz and the voltage up to 10-15 kV causes a reflex reaction of all systems and organs), reduces excitability of nervous-muscular apparatus, has a strong analgesic, antipruritic, antispastic effect, improves trophism, promotes the growth of granulation and epithelial. Diathermy (see) - frequency 500-1500 kHz, voltage 100 to 150 V, current up to 1-2; in tissue is formed endogenous heat activated biochemical processes and trophism, increases metabolism, phagocytosis, expressed analgesic and especially antispastic effect. Used in subacute and chronic processes, and in some cases acute. Reasonable combination of diathermy with other physical factors - galvanothermy (see), deuteroacetone, diathermocoagulation.
High frequency electromagnetic field. In total d'arsonvalization (autoindustrie) appear weak high frequency currents, which the patient does not feel; enhanced the inhibitory processes in the Central nervous system, slightly reduces arterial blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension of the I B, II And stage, strengthens the processes of a metabolism, corrigiruut functional disorders of the nervous system. Inductothermy (see) - short-wave diathermy, frequency of 13.56 MHz; high-frequency electromagnetic field induces eddy currents. In case of equal values inductothermy has significant advantages of diathermy (long and medium wave) due to a more even distribution of power and balanced development of the heat in the tissue, better tolerated and more stable therapeutic effect. Continuous electromagnetic field UHF (see UHF-therapy), frequency 40,68 MHz, power generators from 10 to 350 watts. Are mainly used athermal and oligomerizatsii dose. Appropriate treatment is not only to acute, but also acute inflammatory and purulent processes (furuncles, carbuncles, and others). An expressed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, bacteriostatic and other actions have allowed to establish an extremely wide field of application UHF-therapy. Pulsed electromagnetic field UHF: frequency 39 MHz, average power 15 W per impulse 15 ket. Oscillatory action greater than with continuous electromagnetic field UHF, given approximately in the same testimony (essential hypertension of I B, II And degrees, endarteritis, inflammatory diseases of liver and biliary tract, joints diseases of different etiology and others). Microwave (see Microwave therapy) - electromagnetic waves of ultrahigh frequency 2375 MHz), maximum power output circuit 150 watts. In this method of electrotherapy is achieved even more uniform than in the described methods of treatment, distribution of power and heat distribution in tissues, and even more oscillatory effect. Installed bacteriostatic activity, enhance phagocytic activity, increased activity of the reticuloendothelial system and other Effective treatment of acute purulent-inflammatory, metabolic disorders, trophic disorders, diseases of the joints, the peripheral nervous system and other