Electrical trauma

Electrical trauma is a damage of electric shock.
Electrical trauma is observed in industry, agriculture, transport and in everyday life. Wire telephone, radio, television, accidentally connected to line power, can also be a source of electric shock. Cause electric shock may be and atmospheric electricity (zip). In military terms electrical trauma can occur from touching wire fences, under electric current, high voltage.
The severity of the damage when electric shock depends on the strength and voltage, duration of action and its physical properties (AC, DC). It is considered that the most dangerous alternating current. Most heavy defeat causes an electric current with the voltage of 3000 or more. The longer effect of current, the harder electrical trauma.
Electrical trauma occurs, as a rule, difficult and leads to high mortality.
Effect of current on the body causes serious local and General disorders. By contact of the skin with current conductor large amount of heat, which causes the destruction of tissues (burns). Changes can be observed not only in the skin, but in the deeply located tissues (muscles, bones and joints). As a result of deep burns mortify the nerve trunks, ribs, subjected to eliminate the front wall of the nasal cavity of the nose, is a rupture of the walls of the mouth cavity, the secondary cataract, etc.
For electroorgan typical "signs of the current" (Fig. 1-5), i.e. thick scab, repeating the shape of electric cable, which led to contact the victim. As a rule, electroyogi limited in size, but always penetrate to the depths (Fig. 6).
The most severe burns occur under the action of an electric arc from installations with high voltage (Fig. 7).

electrical trauma
Electrical trauma. Fig. 1 - 3. Contact electrical trauma in violation of isolation of an electric iron (220 V). Marks current. Fig. 1. Before the treatment. Fig. 2. During treatment. Fig. 3. After healing. Fig. 4. Contact electrical trauma (220 V). Signs of a current on the forearm. Fig. 5. Marks current in electric shock from the plug wires (220 V). Fig. 6. Contact electrical trauma of the face and scalp with damage to bone. Fig. 7. Burn electric arc face, neck and upper limbs in the repair of electrical voltage (380V).

If electric shock ignite clothing, possible usual burns (see).
Common phenomena in electric shock caused by the disorders of the Central nervous system, organs of respiration and circulation. For electric shock characteristic fainting, loss of consciousness, speech disorders, convulsions, in the most severe cases - shock (cm), respiratory disorders (including stops). Lethal outcome may occur immediately.
Average health worker, who first may be on the scene, it should be remembered that before the first aid needs to free the victim from power - off switch and remove fuse, cut wire or discard them with wooden sticks or other non-conductive objects. If this is not possible, you should pull the victim. Taking somebody, to avoid the possibility of saving, carried out with the observance of safety precautions: avoid touching the open parts of the body, keep the victim only for clothing and transferred to a safe place. Pre-need to wear rubber or dry woolen gloves, winding hands dry clothes or get on insulating subject (automobile tire, boards, dry cloths).
At the scene immediately proceed to the measures aimed at restoring the activity of the cardiovascular system and respiratory (see Shock, Fainting). During clinical death they should begin with the breath of his mouth to mouth or mouth-to-nose (see CPR) and private massage of the heart, which is carried out the uniform thrust both hands into the lower end of the breast (see the Revival of the body). Resuscitation should continue during the transportation of the victim.
To stop artificial respiration only after the recovery of the patient self-breathing or when there are obvious signs of death (cadaveric spots). Artificial respiration combined with the introduction into the skin of 1% solution lobelina 1 ml or 1 ml tsititona, and 5% glucose solution (intravenous 500 ml or more) or other similar existing medicines. Burying victims of electric shock to the land has no therapeutic effect and is a dangerous superstition, as delaying the implementation of urgent resuscitation measures, the effectiveness of which depends the life of the victim.
Evacuate affected by electric shock in surgical hospitals urgently. Further crucial treatment of electroorgan, and treatment of common disorders and complications from internal organs.
The forecast of light and medium forms of electric shock, provided timely treatment favorable. But as a result of electric shock can develop sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and other diseases, which in turn dangerous for the life of the patient.
Most valid means of prevention of electric shock is an exact observance and observance of rules of safety during installation, repair and operation of electrical equipment, coaching, and constantly functioning system of familiarize the population with the measures for the prevention of electric shock. To prevent electric shock from lightning should close Windows and pipes during thunderstorms, off of the radio installation with an antenna. In the forest and the field should not shelter under standing separately or towering over other trees; it is dangerous to remain in the high places or near the grounding lightning rods.

Electrical trauma - injury resulting from the passage of electric current through the fabric, from the point of entry to the place of its release.
Electrical trauma can occur not only at direct contact of one or another part of the body with the power supply, but at arc contact when a person is close to install under voltage above 1000 C. Arc contact occurs as a result of saskachewan electrons with installations for items with a good conductivity (the human body is a good conductor) through the air. This kind of lesion cannot be identified with the injury from electric (volt) arc, causing burns and light damage to the eyes.
Electrical trauma is 2-2,5% of all injuries, gives a significant percentage of mortality.
Contact electric shock most often occur in spring-summer and summer-autumn. On the production of electric shock occur among electricians, construction workers and skilled workers of other professions. The circumstances and conditions under which occur electric shock, very diverse, but the reason for them is often a failure to comply with electrical safety precautions regulations.
The outcome of electric shock depends on physical parameters of current physiological state of the body and features of the environment that directly affect him. It is established that the alternating current voltage of up to 450-500 in more dangerous than permanent, and with voltages above 450-500 in DC is more dangerous than AC. It was established experimentally that the danger of electric alternating current with voltage 42,5 in equal danger of defeat by a direct current at a voltage of 120 C. the Current in an electrical circuit, 100 mA, is certainly deadly. This value is given in the mandatory technical documentation - rules, instructions.
Considered to be the current of 15 mA causing cramps, i.e. "neotrusteeship"; the main danger it is "chaining" amazed to captured them live subject. It is established that the border "neubuschweg" current is for men on average 11-12 mA, for women 7-8 mA. As the criterion of safety believe (in all cases, including when a match is all adverse factors) current 0.1 mA, i.e. 10 times less than the initial (irritant).
The overheating of the body increases the danger of electric shock. So hot workshops use a lower voltage. Enlarged partial oxygen content in the air lowers the body's sensitivity to electric current, and, on the contrary, reduced oxygen content increases. The higher the humidity of the air, the more possible arcing contact. Electric shock, caused by the current of an electric circuit may be the result of direct thermal, electrochemical, electrodynamic effects of current on a living organism. But they can be a consequence of the indirect effects of an electric current through these or other physiological reactions that occur in response to external stimulus. Electric current acts both locally, damaging tissues, and reflex, through the nervous system. Reflex action expressed very strongly, for the current passing through the body affected, annoying peripheral end of the sensory nerves.
Symptoms and course of the electrical injuries are very diverse and depend on the period of defeat. When conducting an electric current, a person may experience the defeat of the four classes:
I - twitching of muscles without loss of consciousness; II - spasmodic muscle contraction and loss of consciousness; III - twitching of muscles with loss of consciousness and heart disorder or breathing (perhaps both); IV - clinical or imaginary, death.
After the liberation from the influence of electric current patients with electrical trauma of the I degree are experiencing a sharp fright, appear fever, paleness of skin, some patients lose consciousness. In patients with electric shock II degree consciousness comes back quickly, but they also are in a state of fright.
When electric shock III degree, in addition to loss of consciousness can occur deafness tones heart, weak pulse, tachycardia, sometimes arrhythmia. Breathing is difficult not only due to a sharp tehnicheskogo contraction of the muscles of the chest and diaphragm, but spasm of the vocal cords is affected can't shout and ask for help.
The degree of the damage to the body at the moment of passing current cannot predetermine for electric shock in future. It is erroneous to assume a light electric shock, if at the moment of defeat man was not unconscious, as at the end of the month, and sometimes later, the patient can be detected most unexpected complications associated with electroporation.

The clinical picture electric shock diverse, but is mainly reduced to the symptoms of the violation of the functions of all parts of the nervous system. Disorders of the Central nervous system, which are expressed in loss of consciousness, manifested at the time of electric shock. Local symptoms usually found in the first hours after the defeat, but sometimes can be detected in a few days. There are two types of Central nervous system.
Some affected consciousness dimmed and is dominated by the brake. Patients sluggish, lethargic, sleepy, are reluctant to talk about the incident, complain of headache, dizziness, nausea, they remind patients with brain concussion. Local symptoms are observed in a small number of affected are reflected in the asymmetry of innervation VII and XII pairs of cranial nerves, nastavite, lack of convergence, colocation.com the symptom, lowering and raising of tendon reflexes and the violation of those or other kinds of sensitivity.
Other affected dominated by the processes of excitation. Victims are unconscious, but lively, restless; it may take several hours. There is a sharp flushing of the skin and easy zianoz lips, involuntary urination. Pulse frequent, good filling, rhythmic. Neurological symptoms differs little from symptoms in patients of the first type.
In the following days, all victims have neurological painting is distinguished by high diversity and is characterized by the presence of functional disorders. The last remain for a long time, leading to partial or complete loss of earning capacity. Reduced memory, attention, appear distraction, fatigue. After 2-3 weeks after the electric shock some patients may be noted endocrine disorders - hypofunction of thyroid gland (hair loss, dry skin) or more of its hyperfunction (increase cancer, easy, exophthalmos, tachycardia). Women have either increase of ovarian function (shortening of the menstrual cycles)or decrease (cessation of menstruation). Men are very often long-term comes impotence. The most severe complications of electric traumas are mental disorders (epilepsy, schizophrenia).
Recognition of electric shock difficult if the victim lost consciousness or came clinical death. In such cases help the testimonials of those that brought the patient, and the presence of signs of power. The last of pathognomonic for lesions electricity, but impermanent (about 60% of victims), and there are more and more clearly, the higher the voltage. When the action of the current with a voltage of more than 380 occur in deep electroyogi. They are formed mainly on the ground of the input and output current, where the energy enters the Joule heat. Current with the voltage over 1000 V can cause burns and during extremity, flexor surfaces of joints, in the cubital fossa, armpit, and so on
Electroyogi when electrical accident are only III and IV degree. When the IV degree occurs defeat tendons, nerves, muscles and bones.
The appearance of electromag depends on its location and depth. If it proceeds by type of wet necrosis, then burn the surface can have the same form as in thermal burns of II degree, and only after the removal of the epidermal bubble found more profound defeat, exciting subcutaneous fatty tissue. When electroboogie with charring due wrinkling tissue is formed as though impression. There is a wet zone of necrosis and area hyperemia. Electroyogi head almost always accompanied by the change of external and sometimes internal plate of the skull bones. Penetrating into the cranial cavity burn can cause not only of the inflammatory process in the membranes of the brain, but local lesions of the brain. For electroorgan characterized by the absence of pain and hypoesthesia of surrounding tissue.
However, with the direct arc and contact currents large power and high voltage limb becomes partially or completely damaged arm or leg is bent in all joints in connection with tehnicheskim muscle contraction. Victims hectic rush about from severe pain caused by spasm of the muscles or damage major vessel that the patient creates a sense imposed harness.
Violation of pain sensitivity marked not only with extensive burns, but burns, type the characters of the current. Meet the changes of the peripheral nerves by type rising neuritis with paresis, sensitive and trophic disorders. Identifies they immediately after the defeat. But if peripheral nerve is in the area of electromag, flaccid paralysis begins immediately after the injury.
When electric shock slow down the processes of exclusion scab formation of granulation tissue and epithelization of the wound. The growth of the epithelium can only go from healthy skin.
For electroorgan, exciting limb whole or in part, characteristic of bleeding. The deeper and more extensive lesion of soft tissues, the earlier can cause bleeding. On the thigh secondary bleeding may start in the first week after injury on the shoulder in the second week, on forearms and shins - on the third and fourth.