Electrophoretic study

For clinical studies of protein fractions of blood and other biological liquids of the person the most widespread electrophoresis on paper. Using special color on proteins, mucopolysaccharides and lipids, you can analyze the distribution of proteins, the medicine and lipoprotein [see Proteins, Blood (proteins), Lipoproteins, Mukoproteidov]. Changes protein fractions detected by the method of electrophoresis, characterized by the reduction or increase one or more of the factions as protein or related mucopolysaccharides or lipids. Can receive the faction, is not characteristic of the investigated liquid in normal conditions.
Electrophoretic study of blood serum. Investigated usually serum, as fibrinogen is determined by other methods. Normal electrophoregram serum contains the following faction (in %): albumins (56,5-66,8), A1-globulins (3,0-5,6), A2-globulin (6,9 - 10,5),?-globulins (7,3-12,5), '-globulins (12,8-19). Changes in the protein composition of the blood are observed in many diseases, but they are allospecific and reflect only a General change in the protein metabolism in the body. Changes albumin fraction are characterized, as a rule, their reduction (with insufficient intake, the defeat liver parenchyma, increased protein metabolism, malignant tumors, the loss of protein). Increase albumin fraction is observed sometimes in the treatment of corticosteroid hormones. The content of alpha-globulin decreased when alcoholism, hemolytic anemia; it increases mainly due to the A2-globulin, acute inflammatory process, particularly proceeding from the destruction and rebuilding of tissues (acute rheumatism, collagenoses, acute attacks of disease), proliferation and necrosis (burns, thrombosis, in particular myocardial infarction), acute hepatitis, nephritis, and especially nephrotic syndrome. The increase A2-globulin is mainly due mucopolysaccharides, which constitute 50% of this faction. Content of beta-globulin decreased when severe jaundice, hemolytic anemia. The increase of this fraction is observed in alimentary lipemia, lipoid principally, atherosclerosis and is associated with an increased content of lipoproteins that make up 60%. Contents ' -globulin, which include the majority of antibodies increases in chronic infectious processes, parasitic diseases, the defeat of the reticuloendothelial system (retikulez, persistent septic endocarditis, collagenoses, the last stage of liver cirrhosis). Reduced fraction ' -globulin when lipoid principally, burns and with Hypo - and agammaglobulinemia.
The emergence of proteins, not typical of a normal human blood, the so-called paraproteins (see Proteinemia), observed in myeloma, the essential macroglobulinemia valdenstroma, lymphosarcoma, Cala Asare (crioglobulin). C-reactive protein appears in the active phase of the inflammatory process. The myeloma protein by electrophoretic mobility can match any of globulin fractions depending on the type of myeloma. Crioglobulin has mobility b - and V-globulin. These diseases these fractions significantly increased. To highlight paraproteins, which have specific immune properties, produce immuno-electrophoretic study, which, however, has not yet received sufficient distribution in the clinic. C-reactive protein migrates at the level of alpha-globulins. Its definition is done usually by other methods. Despite the fact. that for a number of diseases electrophoretic changes expressed enough, nespecificescoe and individual variations reduce their diagnostic value. However electrophoretic study of blood could play a significant role for the dynamics of the disease, prognosis and treatment. So, the increase simultaneously alpha - and V-globulin in infectious diseases indicates the transformation of acute process in chronic; increase ' -globulin for persistent septic endocarditis complicates the forecast, while the decrease of this faction on background treatment with steroids speaks about the effectiveness of treatment.
Electrophoretic study of urine. In acute and chronic nephritis proprotional has no characteristic changes. Most diagnostic value has electrophoretic study with nephrotic syndrome. Ratio of factions albumins and globulins maximum when lipoid principally, when globulins in the urine are almost absent. The increase globulin fraction more than 25% relative to albumin may indicate a more severe defeat of the glomeruli and is typical of renal amyloidosis. In some cases, multiple myeloma at europroteome find globulin fraction containing the myeloma protein.
Electrophoretic study of spinal and cranial fluid. Proteinogram normal spinal and cranial fluid is characterized compared with serum increasing fraction of beta-globulin and some incremental factions. Diagnostic value has reduced albumen faction in tuberculous meningitis.
Electrophoretic study of gastric juice. Electrophoregram gastric juice has fractions corresponding to pepsin, albumin, components secretion that contains mucopolysaccharides, and products of digestion of protein components pepsin. Most diagnostic value has increased albumin at "prodeinotherium the gastroenteropathy" and stomach cancer.