Electromyography in the clinic

Electromyography is studying oscillations of the potential in developing muscles.
However, in connection with the functional unity of the Central nervous system and peripheral neuromotor apparatus EMG data allows to assess the state of the segmental and newsegmentonly departments of the nervous system that organizes (in all forms of motor reactions) coordinated excitation segmental motor neurons and innervated their muscles.
Electromyographic method is widely used in the study of musculoskeletal disorders arising in connection with various human diseases (neurological, mental and others).
To establish violations of muscle electrogenes, using special high-sensitivity equipment, register electromyograms symmetric muscles, muscles, innervation associated with different levels of the nervous system, by different functional States.
The combination of electric stimulation of nerves with simultaneous recording the resulting fluctuations in capacity of the muscle (so-called stimulation electromyography) allowed to approach the study of a number of theoretical and diagnostically important issues: the determination of the rate of impulses in the nerves, to the study of the transition of pulses in the field mineralnych endings, the study of the functional state of segmental nuclear reflex system and other
Extensive factual material and mapping electromyographic and clinical assessment motor functions has allowed to establish the peculiarities of electromyogram when major syndromes movement disorders. Modern electrophotographic equipment, advanced methodology and technology lead muscle potentials allow to capture changes bioelectric processes not only when clinically expressed violations of muscle tone and movements, but also in subclinical lesions, in the early stages of the disease.
The most serious violations of muscle electrogenesis observed in the muscle damage or different sections of motor neurons (cells and their axons, mineralnych endings). Refined electromyographic characteristics of oscillations of the potential in separate elements of peripheral neuromotor apparatus when myogenic, neurotic, nuclear, segmental lesions (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Electromyograms with different severity of motor neurons: 1 - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (from top to bottom: electromyogram fasciculations in the anterior tibial muscle of the left leg, electromyogram same muscles of the right leg; clinically violations features not found); 2 - polio, residual period (from top to bottom: electromyogram sharply paretic quadriceps muscles of the right leg, below the same name was paralyzed muscles of the left leg; down time stamp).

When newsegmentonly (supranuclear) motor disorders electromyograms reflect not so much the appearance of various kinds of pathological oscillations of the potential changes of their forms, duration and so on), many disorders of the Central coordination of excitation in numerous motoneuron which control the muscle as a body performing all motor reaction. Newsegmentonly musculoskeletal disorders (Central paresis, Hyper - and hypotension, hyperkinesia) electromyographical are characterized by changes in the intensity fluctuations and disturbances of the overall structure waveform (Fig. 7 and 8).

Fig. 7. Electromyograms calf muscles in spastic (top) and Valparaiso (bottom) States with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Fig. 8. Electromyograms under the Central hyperkinesia: 1 - multiple sclerosis (electromyogram common extensor fingers when intentsionnogo the shake); 2 - postentsefaliticheskom parkinsonism (electromyograms common extensor fingers of the right hand and his left hand when jitter).
The widespread use of electromyography of the method in the clinic helps in the diagnosis of a pathological syndrome, the specification of the gravity of the defeat of the nervous system and muscles, reveals the light of changes in the muscle potentials at an early (subclinical) stages of the disease, allows to objectively document (with repeated testing) dynamics of pathological or recovery processes (Fig. 9).
Mapping EMG data with the results of neurophysiological study of motor function, with the clinical picture allows to approach to the analysis of possible physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of motor activity of the healthy and sick person.

Fig. 9. Electromyograms by polio; the dynamics of the recovery of the electrical activity of the common extensor fingers; 1 - electromyogram minimize right (top) and the left (bottom) muscles (25 days from the moment of disease); 2 - the same (50 days from the moment of the disease).