Electron microscopy tissue

Application of electron microscopy for studying living tissues allows you to get an idea of the fine structure of cells and intercellular structures in norm and under different pathological processes. It became possible to observe education, which has dimensions of 1 MK to 7-10 + (called the ultrastructure of cells). The main result of this research should consider the establishment of membrane structure that is different components of cells. For example, it turned out that the mitochondria have a complex structure and represent education, which are limited outside and blocked inside double membranes. Integrated electron microscopy and histochemical studies have shown that inside the mitochondria and especially on their membranes are localized key enzyme system cells. The cytoplasm of the apparent in the light microscope almost homogeneous colloidal mass electron microscopy is composed of many dual-protein-lipid membrane, forming a complex of intracellular network of tubules (called the endoplasmic reticulum). On the outer membranes of endoplasmic reticulum are granules, which are ribonucleoprotein and was called ribosomes. Endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein synthesis and at the same time represents a unified transport system cells that links the core with different organelles and extracellular space. Membrane structure and have other organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus, nuclear envelope, skin cells, and so on, Revealing a double membrane, partitioned across the muscle fibers of the heart and divides them into isolated from each other segments, was the basis for the conventional view is not about syncytial, and on the cellular structure of the myocardium.
At the electron microscopic studies radically changed the picture of the structure of organelles, specific to certain cells. It is established, for example, that of myofibrils consist of many smaller strands of two types (thin and thicker), called myofilaments. Based on these data put forward a new theory of the contraction of muscle fibers. Using an electronic microscope received very important data on the diversity and complexity of intercellular contacts (desmosome, inversions membranes surrounding cells, and so on).
The importance of complex use of electron microscopy, histochemistry and autoradiography - e-histochemistry and e autoradiography (see). This comprehensive method allows not only to distinguish the finest structures of cells, but also to determine their chemical composition, i.e., to make representation about the functional significance of these structures, their role in the functioning of the cell. This path is currently increasing convergence of biochemical, physiological and morphological methods of research at the molecular level.
Crucial to the development of electronic microscopy for further deepening of the understanding of the essence of structural changes of cells in various pathological processes. Many questions permeability, inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration in a completely new way are decided in the light of data electron microscopy. It is established, for example, that in a basis dystrophy are not only violations of colloid composition of cytoplasm, and complex structural changes many organelles responsible for different parts of intracellular metabolism. These changes ultra structures are non-specific character, i.e. there are similar at different influences. In some cases, more selective damage are those or some of them, such as mitochondria, or the endoplasmic reticulum. It was found also that the regenerative process can be expressed in play not only cells but also their ultra structures, i.e. leaking intracellular. Strengthening the function of cells is provided by corresponding increases, the attenuation is the decrease in the number of their ultra structures. These data are a new confirmation of the principle of unity of structure and function.
The method of electron microscopy not only does not exclude, but, on the contrary, requires the simultaneous examination of tissues other methods, in particular, with the help of an optical microscope. Using only electronic microscope, it is very difficult, for example, to get information about the topography and extent of the process in the whole body, which is critical for understanding the degree of compensation of impaired functions in each case.
Cm. also Microscopy.