The conductivity of hard tooth tissues

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The electrical conductivity of the tissue is directly dependent on the content of water in which, as a rule, dissolved salts, dissolvine ions. The more tissue water, more ions - core "vectors" of current in our body. Thus, the pulp is relatively good current conductor. Much worse conduct current dentin containing 4-5% of water. As for the enamel, it is a very poor conductor. In the enamel current spreads through ripristino substance containing water. However, the total amount of water in the enamel is very small, which makes clear the enormous resistance.
The electrical conductivity of the tissue of the tooth has been very little studied. Available are few works refer mainly to the beginning of our century and full of contradictory data. Some authors determined resistance of the tooth in General, others studied the resistance of the individual tissues. In all cases, the resistance was determined by the voltage and amperage. Research of resistance of the tooth in General were made both remote teeth, and on the teeth in the mouth. In the latter case, one electrode (passive) superimposed on any area of the body (hand), other (active) - on the study tooth. On direction and force of a current were determined the total resistance of all tissues, located between the electrodes.
It is extremely interesting that the focus of all of the authors was paid to the study of resistance of dentine, which was caused by the desire to broader introduce the clinic dental diseases electrotherapy. As for the enamel, the study of its resistance, according to all the authors, had no practical value.
In fact, the issues conductivity of tooth hard tissues of great interest. Shifts in the content of water, mineral and organic substances in solid tissues of the tooth, indicating a major shift in them, can be simply and accurately captured by measuring the electrical conductivity. So, it is well known that in carious teeth, in affected areas, the water content increases, and the mineral content decreases, that, naturally, should affect the resistance of the relevant parts of the tooth, and that was repeatedly confirmed by our data measuring conductivity, which showed that the resistance in a caries-damaged areas of the tooth are falling sharply.
This has been confirmed in the works of A. Century Granin (1966) showed that, at any stage of the tooth enamel and dentine is loss of mineral salts in the areas of defeat.
Taken our study of the resistance of the pigment spots on teeth showed that in some cases pigmented enamel is much less resistance than the surrounding normal enamel, while in other teeth spots largest resistance indistinguishable from the surrounding enamel.
E. M. Prikazchikova (1926, 1936) on the basis of their morphological studies considers any pigmentation teeth as carious process, labeling it as the primary form of caries as a stain. It distinguishes between acute and chronic forms. The acute form by light pigmentation, coloring the surface layer of enamel. The chronic form is characterized by intense pigmentation. Staining is observed not only in enamel, but also in the underlying dentin. Under microscope you can see the change enamel structure in the form of podcherknuto drawing, cross acercandose enamel prisms and lines of Retzius. Configuration edge enamel cover change, has the form of deepening, which indicates loss of substance. The pigmented area of dentin sometimes extends to a greater depth. In some cases, the pigmented area of dentin preserves its structure, in other dentinal tubules on the border with enamel lose their structure. Pigmented dentin seems clear *.
Pigmentation enamel, undoubtedly represent a pathological process, in some cases is gradually transformed into a typical, easily diagnosed form of superficial caries, in others, on the contrary, is suspended at this stage and therapeutic intervention is not required. Clinicians are well-known cases when on the teeth appear limited pigmented areas, which for years have not shown a trend towards progression. The ability to way of distinguishing where we are steadily progressing process, and another form of pathology is of great practical interest. It is possible that the ability of a more or less accurately measure the resistance of tooth hard tissues will give a key to solving this task.

* Transparent dentin looks painted only in cases of so-called proximal location spots.