Power station

Power plants are enterprises producing electric power. The power plant is divided into thermal, hydraulic and nuclear power. Due to mechanization and automation of the operation of power plants is carried out centrally. The personnel's work is characterized by a great responsibility and tension.
The most favourable conditions of work at hydropower plants. In nuclear power plants, the health watchdog radioactive radiation, aerosols and gases.
The main producers of electricity are powerful thermal power station of block type using as fuel, coal, oil shale, peat, oil, natural gas. Harmful factors are high temperature, dust (see), noise (see) and vibration (see). In summer the temperature in the boiler-turbine shop reaches 30-35°, on the grounds of boilers, deaerators and crane cabins - 35-50 degrees. In winter the climate is characterized by temperature changes and drafts. The climate can be improved by careful insulation of the equipment and the correct operation of ventilation. In the premises of the boards of management and the cab of the crane operators need to install air-conditioners. Unloading and transportation of fuels in the boiler shop and ash branch concentration of fuel dust and ash reach 20 - 100 mg/m3; at repair and cleaning of boilers - 100-500 mg/m3. Ash fuel oil can cause poisoning contains vanadium and skin diseases caused by impurities sulfur, Nickel, vanadium and other
To reduce dust contribute: sealing tracts fuel supply, implementation dustless methods of cleaning of boilers and wet cleaning of the premises. In areas with intensive pylevydeleniem need to use a respirator (see). Sources of noise and vibration are turbogenerators, gas - and steam pipes, pumps, mills and other Total levels of noise from the turbines are 94-110 dB, the mills - 109-120 dB, in the boiler shop - 80-95 dB, in the premises of the control panels - 70-90 dB. Noises are high frequency. The General vibration parameters, slightly higher than the permissible levels. Reduce noise and vibration can be achieved thorough sound and vibration machines. In some areas it is advisable to use antiphons (see Proteosome).

The power plant is a company (thermal, hydraulic and nuclear), generating electricity. The basis of energy industry is a powerful thermal power station block type, which, in addition to electric, can produce thermal energy for industrial and domestic purposes in the form of steam and hot water (heating). The operation of the plant is from the main shield, separate units and units with a group and local boards. The work of the operators-operators is characterized by a great responsibility and tensions, especially in the start-up period and during the emergency situation. For rational organization of their work currently use control of electronic computing machines.
The most favourable conditions of work at hydropower plants (HPP), in nuclear power plants (NPP).
The main workshops of the thermal power plants are boiler and turbine. Fuels are coal, oil shale, peat, oil and natural gas. Hazards-high temperatures, intense noise (see), dust (see) and toxic gases. In summer the temperature reaches 30-35°, on the grounds of vodosborov, deaerators and crane cabins - 35-50 degrees. In winter the climate is characterized by temperature changes and drafts. Favorable weather conditions are achieved by improving the insulation of equipment and proper operation of aeration systems. In the premises of the group management boards and the cab of the crane is suitable installation of air conditioning.
The highest concentrations of dust (10-50 mg/m3) are observed during unloading, crushing, transportation of fuel and ash room. In the repair and cleaning of boilers dust concentration reaches 100 to 500 mg/m3. In aerosols ash mnogoserijnyj fuel oils contain from 5 to 27% of vanadium and up to 8-10% of Nickel, in aerosols ash coal - up to 24% of free silica, oil shale ash - up to 10-20% free lime. To reduce dust content can be achieved by local suction device, implementation dustless methods of cleaning of boilers and wet cleaning of the premises. Repair work is necessary to use respirators (see) and protective clothing.
The concentration of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, sulphur and sulphuric anhydrides, as a rule, does not exceed the limit values. Sources of noise are turbine generators, steam pipelines, ejectors, pumps, mills. Overall levels of noise from the turbines range from 94 to 110 dB, ball mills, from 109 to 120 dB in the boiler shop - from 80 to 95 dB, in the premises of the group shields - from 70 to 90 dB. The noise is characterized by a whole range of frequencies, including ultrasound. To reduce noise, you should carefully to soundproof steam - and-gas pipelines and timely eliminate the extra noise. In some areas use the antiphons.