Embolism - a blockage of blood vessels particles of solids, drops of oil or gas bubbles. Accordingly, there are embolism those or other solids (thrombosis, embolism particles of the tumor, if Echinococcus bubbles or their parts and other), fat embolism and gas embolism.
In addition, there are embolism vessels of the small circle of blood circulation (venous embolism) and embolism vessels large circulation, arterial embolism).
Most often embolism occurs when venous thrombosis (see). Cut out part of a blood clot (mainly from the veins of the lower extremities, pelvis) swept through the right half of the heart to the pulmonary vessels. Small emboli, staying in a small pulmonary vessel, causing a heart attack, lung, and large embolus clog the main trunk of the pulmonary artery that leads to fast (in minutes) death.
Arterial embolism is a blockage of blood vessels of various internal organs.
The main source of arterial emboli are thrombi formed on the mitral or aortic heart valve when endocarditis. Blood embolus can obturate coronary arteries of the heart, of the superior mesenteric, iliac or femoral artery, which is manifested respectively symptoms of myocardial infarction (see), acute intestinal obstruction (see), circulatory disorders of the lower limbs (pain, pallor, loss of pulse and other signs of ischemia, until the development of gangrene).
Emboli, cut off from an infected blood clot (thrombosis, infectious endocarditis), contain pathogens and serve the cause of metastatic abscesses and septicopyemia (see Sepsis). Causes of separation of emboli in thrombosis: a sudden rise in blood pressure, physical activity, wrongly applied massage, etc. With heart valve embolus can come off with enhanced cardiac reductions, and sometimes without explicit immediate causes.
Unlike thrombosis and occlusive lesions of blood vessels (atherosclerosis and endarteritis), when embolism all the symptoms occur suddenly and sharply. Prevention of thromboembolism is to prevent venous thrombosis, especially in the postoperative period in elderly patients, in the correct treatment of endocarditis.
Clinic and treatment of thrombosis and embolism - see Thromboembolic disease.
The main reason of fat embolism - trauma with the destruction of adipose tissue (especially bone marrow, from which the fat comes in the affected vein. This is possible mainly at fractures, at least - with extensive bruises subcutaneous fat in obese people, with operations on the bones.
Most often develops fat embolism pulmonary artery. Fat droplets enter the blood gradually, so signs embolism can be identified only after several hours and even days after injury, when blocked a large number of pulmonary capillaries: there dyspnea, coughing, cyanosis; obturation more than half of the lung capillaries face death. The drops of fat, extending into the vessels of large circulation, can cause a rare brain form e: with symptoms of stroke (see). When a small fat embolism fat soon removed from the blood - part is absorbed by the cells, part excreted in the urine.
The treatment is very strict peace, 3-4 times daily subcutaneous injections of ethyl ether 2-3 ml, oxygen inhalations, under the skin lobeline (1 ml of 1% solution), ephedrine (1 ml of 5% solution), according to testimony - heart funds. Prevention is the most thorough vehicle immobilization of fractures.
Air embolism occurs mainly when the injuries are the large veins of the upper half of the body - the jugular, subclavian, axillary, etc. With a big gaping wounds the air out in the breath drawn in is damaged veins, and can be heard the distinctive sound. You may experience of air embolism during operations on large veins, unless precautions are taken. Sometimes the air can penetrate into the veins of the uterus, bad declining after birth.
For intravenous infusion, transfusion must be taken that in the syringe, tubing system was not even a small air bubbles.
Massive air embolism face immediate death by filling in the right half of the heart air and foam blood. Smaller amounts of air cause multiple embolism small pulmonary vessels with shortness of breath, cyanosis, a decline of cardiac activity. Part of air bubbles can pass through the blood vessels of the lungs into the systemic circulation and cause an embolism coronary arteries or of the blood vessels of the brain with convulsions, blindness, paralysis; sometimes there may come a quick death.
Emergency first aid is to stop the access of air to Vienna. Having heard the suction sound in the wound, you should immediately clamped her fingers, low lower the top half of the body injured (see Trendelenburg position), to impose tight pressure bandage and evacuate the wounded on stretchers with foot raised end.
If the air embolism occurred in the operating-the patient is immediately transferred to the Trendelenburg position. Further medical treatment - the strictest rest, oxygen inhalation, according to testimony - lobelias. You cannot apply a means to raise blood pressure, pour the blood, to enter the blood - all this can result in pushing the air bubbles from the small circle of blood circulation in the large.
Air embolism, did not cause rapid death, often ends with a recovery as the gases of air gradually dissolve in the blood.
A special type of air embolism - gas embolism caused by the formation of gas bubbles in the blood under the influence of sudden significant downward pressure,see Decompression illness.

Embolism (from the Greek. embole - the throw-invasion) carry - current of blood in remote areas of vascular network of any strange for blood particles (emboli), expelled under different conditions.