Embryopathy

Embryopathy is a disease and injuries germarising in the period from education embryoblast from the middle of the 1st until the end of the 3rd month. fetal development.
Cause of embryopathy may be hereditary genetic disorders, infectious diseases, intoxication poisons, lack of oxygen, radiation and other pathogenic influence transmitted from mother to fetus. Embryopathy disrupt the formation of organs of the fetus and cause malformations of organs and body parts, spontaneous abortions.
To prevent embryopathy important health of the woman in the early months of pregnancy (see Antenatal care of the fetus).
Cm. also Malformations, Fetopathy.

Embryopathy (from the Greek. embryon - uterine fetal germ and pathos - suffering, illness) is a disease of the embryo arising in the period of embryogenesis is the main primitive bookmarks most important bodies.
Embryogenesis begins from the middle of the first month and ends the third month of fetal life (Fig.).
Any damaging the embryo influence causes or death, or infringement of processes of formation, called malformation. Therefore, embryopathy appear in the form of malformations of organs or body parts of the embryo. In addition morphologically expressed malformations, were observed and functional disorders of organs and systems (enzymatic and exchange character). Such functional embryopathy can be detected in the future life of the individual.
Using the data embryology, one can judge, to a certain extent, exactly, about the time of occurrence of embryopathy, as the organ most sensitive at the moment of highest mitotic activity forming its embryonic tissue. The main defining moment in the emergence of one or another disease development is a time when the harmful agent has had its effect on an embryo; for example, different agents (radiation energy, diabetes in the mother) can cause the same malformation (anencephaly), if their influence took place on the 3rd week of life of the embryo. However, excluding the role of the characteristics of the injurious agent is impossible, as the undoubted importance tropism this agent to the different tissues of embryo (for example, rubella virus infects mainly tissue tab of the lens, the milk teeth, the inner ear, heart, virus epidemic of hepatitis a bookmark of the liver and bile ducts).
The causes of embryopathy may be endogenous (genotype) and exogenous (various influences from the mother's body). Teratogenic effects of various exogenous influences depends on the genetic characteristics of this or that subject. Thus, in the experiment on animals genetically different strains of the number of defects, received under the influence of exogenous influences, varies.
Private forms of embryopathy human beings have known very little. Among embryopathy virus completely studied robertma embryopathy, which, depending on the period of illness of the mother of rubella is expressed in malformations eyes, inner ear, heart, teeth rudiments. Assume that teratogenic effect have the flu epidemic hepatitis, polio, Coxsackie, cytomegaly.
Diabetic embryopathy observed in 3 - 12% of cases in children of mothers who have diabetes; this raises atresia intestines, heart defects, defects of the limbs, skull and anencephaly.
Radiation embryopathy humans studied little. The residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors of the atomic bomb, has been a miscarriage, premature birth fruits or fruits with functional disabilities; notable of the increase of malformations were not observed.
Drug embryopathy extensively studied in the experiment. Has teratogenic effects of sulfanilamida, some antibiotics (tetracycline, terramycin, aureomycin), hormones (corticosteroids, insulin), drugs (aminopterin), vitamins. Gained fame thalidomide embryopathy that took place in West Germany after the use of thalidomide to pregnant women. While the children were born with defects of the limbs. Some researchers indicate a teratogenic effect of quinine (developmental defects in the neural tube, extremities). In respect of other medicinal embryopathy human reliable data are scarce.
The forecast of embryopathy major organs unsuitable. In some cases, surgery. Crucial prevention - fence pregnant women (especially in the first weeks of pregnancy) from possible harmful effects, including in the use of active drug therapy. It must be borne in mind that embryopathy can be combined with fetopathy (see). In these cases, the active therapy of the newborn, if possible, specific character. Cm. also Vices development.

Pathology prenatal period Gertler (scheme): I - the pathology of progenesis; II-V - pathology of fetus (1-280 day): II - pathology period of blastogenesis (1-15-th day); III - the pathology of the period of embryogenesis (16-75 day); IV-pathology fetal period (76-280 day); V - pathology development of the placenta (15-280 day). 1-ovary; 2 egg; 3 - embryoblast; 4 - trophoblast; 5 - amnion; 6 - the embryo; 7 - chorion; 8 - the fruit; 9 - placenta.