Emphysema is a chronic disease that causes the expansion of the alveoli of the lungs, accompanied by atrophy of the alveolar septa and decrease the elasticity of the lung tissue. Emphysema is irreversible process, leading first to respiratory failure, and then to the heart. In this disease chest expands, excursion her decreases, exhale difficult, constant hard work of respiratory muscles causes fatigue, develops shallow breath, and decreased vital capacity (VC); respiratory minute volume is provided only by the frequency of breathing, and not the depth.
Emphysema is most often the consequence of bronchitis, pneumosclerosis (expansion of the connective tissue in the lungs). It can develop as a result of occupational disease, if the work is connected with resistance when you exhale (musicians, glass-blowers).
The development of the pathological process emphysema can be divided into three stages: 1) compensation stage (bronchitisa), 2) the stage with symptoms of pulmonary insufficiency, 3) the stage of cardiopulmonary insufficiency.
In the first stage the main tasks of medical physical culture are: 1) the General strengthening and tempering of the body; 2) to increase the mobility of the chest; 3) training diaphragmatic breathing; 4) strengthening of the breathing muscles to improve exhalation with special breathing exercises; 5) strengthening the heart muscle. Apply the following form of medical physical culture: physiotherapy, dosed boating, swimming, walking, skiing.
In the second stage of the disease, when there are both phenomena emphysema and increasing pulmonary insufficiency, means of medical physical culture are subject to the impaired function of the respiratory system and blood circulation.
The tasks of medical physical culture are: 1) control of pulmonary insufficiency; 2) strengthening the respiratory muscles; 3) improvement of blood circulation; 4) strengthening of the myocardium; 5) increasing the functional evaluation of patients with moderate labor and everyday physical activity. To solve these problems apply therapeutic gymnastics, dosed walking and Hiking.
The third stage of the disease is characterized by phenomena not only lung, and cardiovascular disease. The main tasks of medical physical culture: 1) raising the emotional tone; 2) improvement of the activity of the respiratory apparatus; 3) control of pulmonary insufficiency; 4) eliminate venous congestion; 5) improvement of blood supply to the myocardium; 6) increasing the adaptability of organism of patients of moderate physical activity.
Apply the following form of medical physical culture: therapeutic gymnastics, dosed walking at a slow pace. At occurrence while walking significant dyspnea need to make a stop and for the settlement of the circulatory and respiratory breathing exercises.
In doing therapeutic exercises it is recommended to alternate exercises with special breathing exercises and rest breaks. Given the reduced functional adaptability of organism of patients to exercise, it is not recommended to conduct exercises in high doses. Exercises with the involvement of small and medium muscle groups should be repeated 4 to 6 times, involving the major muscle groups is 2-4 times; special breathing exercises, 3-4 times. The pace of the exercises is slow.