Encephalitis in children

Encephalitis in children is more common than adults, since children are not only all known forms of primary viral encephalitides, but rare in adults secondary encephalitis, emerging infectious diseases and some preventive vaccination (smallpox vaccinations, rabies vaccinations). The encephalitis in children is characterized by great polymorphism of clinical symptoms.
From encephalitis should be distinguished encephalitides reaction without etiological specificity. They can occur at any infectious disease themselves as human consciousness and convulsions in younger children, Breda, hallucinosis, and agitation among older children. Encephalitides reactions tend to occur at the height of the disease, with a high temperature, but in some cases may occur in the prodromal period, at normal temperature. Based encephalitides reactions are discirculatory violations that due to lack of morphological and functional maturity of cerebral easily lead to edema and swelling. Particularly frequent encephalitides reactions in early childhood.
Encephalitis can occur in children at any age and in utero. Intrauterine encephalitis is developed mainly for diseases of women in the first half of pregnancy, and is characterized by diffuse loss of brain child (congenital encephalopathy). Encephalitides, appeared in the second half of pregnancy, characterized by clear focality.

Epidemic (lethargy) encephalitis, Economo in children, as in adults, has a short prodromal period. The main symptoms are fever, sleep disturbance, eye and vestibular disorders. Frequent in children of different hyperkineses and tonic convulsions. More often than adults, children are also forms with meningeal syndrome and psychosensory violations. In chronic period of a disease in children often have a change of mentality and intelligence with the development of falsehood, malice, stubbornness, increased eroticism, propensity for theft and vagrancy. Parkinsonism is rare.

Encephalitides enterovirus etiology (Coxsackie and echo-viruses) can occur as sporadic, and during epidemic outbreaks, most serous meningitis. Described enterovirus encephalitides with ataxia, vestibular and oculomotor violations, choreiform the hyperkinesia, pyramidal symptoms. A number of patients in clinical symptomatology with a lesion of the brain stem and the basal ganglia reminds epidemic encephalitis. For more than favorably with full backward development of symptoms within 3-4 weeks.
Chronic when enteroviral encephalitis in children is not observed.

Secondary encephalitis (measles, varicella, measles, mumps, scarlet fever and other) - see above Clinical picture.

Allergic encephalitis. Postvaccinal encephalitis usually occurs on 9-11 day after opepreveria. The disease begins rapidly: high temperature, violation of consciousness, generalized convulsions. Symptoms focal lesions of the Central nervous system, especially in young children, are consistent. Often, after postvaccinal encephalitis develop symptomatic epilepsy, children lag behind in development.
Encephalomyelitis with rabies vaccination occurs after the incubation period for 10 days to several months. Describes the different syndromes, which are often observed maliciously and polyradiculoneuritis.
For the treatment of allergic encephalitis should be desencibilizirutuyu therapy with corticosteroids, antihistamines, combining it with antibiotics. In the acute period of the disease appropriate designation dehydrating agents, vitamins. Treatment of residual phenomena carried out by the General rules of rehabilitation therapy.
In recent years a great attention is drawn to the chronically having a progressive forms of encephalitis that on clinical symptomatology should be referred to the group of leukoencephalitis (see). This is a group of various diseases which predominantly affect white matter of the brain. Postmortem the basis of the disease is demyelination, diffuse gliosis and degeneration of nerve cells, primarily of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia. In young children leukoencephalitis usually have a quick and malignant course-with the development of seizures, deep dementia, spastic tetraparesis, deafness, blindness and other heavy defeats. Often in the beginning of the disease can be noted mainly occipital-parietal or frontal localization process, which quickly capture other parts of the brain and leads to death. In older children can be observed illnesses by type of pseudotumor with the development of hypertension-obstructive syndrome. At an older age there are also forms with relapsing-remitting course and good back development of psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Treatment of leukoencephalitis hormonal therapy for some patients improves sometimes so great that is regarded as a recovery. However, even with good outcome cannot be sure that the process will not be repeated.