Treatment and prevention of encephalitis

Treatment. In the acute stage of tick-borne encephalitis endolyumbalno injected the serum been ill for 8-15 ml intramuscularly in a dose 50 ml 2-3 times with an interval of 2-3 days. To prevent secondary infections used antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline in therapeutic doses), to combat the swelling of the brain injected 40% glucose with vitamins B1, C, intramuscularly 1% solution of lasixa 1 - 2 ml, magnesium sulfate, novoryt apply heart funds (kordiamin, korglykonum), group b vitamins, ascorbic acid.
Treatment lethargic encephalitis in the acute period includes a dehydration therapy (intravenous 40% glucose with vitamin B1, C, intramuscularly 1% solution of lasixa 1-2 ml), antibiotics in normal doses, multivitamins inside. In the chronic phase for the treatment of Parkinson's disease are applied atropinovij drugs (tropatsin 0.01-0.025 g two to three times a day, trihexyphenidyl 0.001 g three times a day). Currently, the drug treatment of L-DOPA mouth or injection at a dose of 1-4 grams per day.
Treatment of enterovirus encephalitis symptomatic: intravenous administration of a 40% solution of glucose, inside amidopyrine, analgin, diphenhydramine, pipolfen, ascorbic acid.
Treatment for encephalitis varicella: intravenous 40% solution of glucose, intramuscularly 25% solution of magnesium sulfate, enemas with a 3% solution of chloral hydrate, antisense drugs, bromides, hypnotics.
Specific treatment of the influenza encephalitis does not exist. Apply antibiotics, dehydration means (magnesium sulfate, glucose, novoryt), drugs that strengthen the vascular wall: rutin 0.02 g 2 times a day, ascorbic acid 0.2 g 3 times a day, gluconate calcium 0.5 g 3 times a day.
Treatment of measles encephalitis comes to the application of dehydration means, in court - phenobarbital inside in normal doses, enemas with chloral hydrate. Appointed antisense funds. The use of gamma globulin and measles serum in the first days of disease, reduces the severity of the disease.
Treatment of malaria encephalitis consists of the use of specific anti-malarial drugs (quinine, Akrikhin, bigumal), injections of vitamins, dehydration and heart drugs.
Treatment of rheumatic encephalitis: bed rest, penicillin up to 2 000 000 IU per day for adults and from 500 000 to 1 000 000 UNITS to children amidopirina to 1.5 g / day for 2 weeks adults, up to 1 g children, phenylbutazone 0,075-0,15 g 3 times a day, prednisolone 10 mg 4 times per day (children in the age doses and only in severe forms) during the month, with a gradual reduction of the dose. Ascorbic acid 0.2 g 3 times a day for 2-3 months, phenobarbital 0.03-0.1 g 2 times per day, depending on age, 2% solution of sodium bromide by 1 chain. or table. L. 3 times a day. To prevent a recurrence patients who have had rheumatic attack, you must obligatory courses preventive treatment bicillin in spring and autumn. Treatment for encephalitis when rubella spend dehydrating and desencibilizirutee drugs, in court - bromides and luminara.

Specific methods of treatment nowadays, is developed only for tick-borne encephalitis. In severe cases it is appropriate application specific globulin or hyperimmune serum in the early days of the acute phase of the disease first 6 ml, and then 3 ml intramuscularly within 4-5 days. Serum patients also prescribed for tick, mosquito, postvaccine, measles encephalitis in the acute period of the disease (10 ml intramuscularly). In the treatment postvaccinal encephalitis good effect is obtained from the use of serum sleeprelated people. The introduction of these funds in Podporina space is to be avoided.
Prevention of secondary infection (pneumonia) extensive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (tetracycline and others). With infectious-allergic, chlamydia psittaci, skarlatines and other encephalitis secondary bacterial nature they have a causal effect. To reduce the effects of inflammatory swelling of the brain and intracranial hypertension have applied a 40% solution of glucose (20-40 ml) administered intravenously 25% solution of magnesium sulfate intramuscularly, nechutne diuretics (diakarb, dihlotiazid). Treatment of spinal puncture is made according to the testimony (increasing hypertension). The inefficiency of treatment and increasing cerebral phenomena can be applied glucocorticoid hormones (prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone). Especially shown hormones syndrome rising spinal paralysis Landry. The use of ACTH, especially in mental disorders and epileptic fits, it is undesirable. In all cases shown large doses (not less than 1 g / day) of ascorbic acid. When unconscious, attention should be paid to creation of parenteral nutrition, prevention of dehydration (physiological solution of sodium chloride subcutaneously to 1 liter per day), the surveillance function of the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract (timely catheterization, enema).
Stimulants breathing (tsititon, lobeline) and heart activity are used according to the indications. With the increasing disorders respiratory needs timely translation into controlled breath. In the treatment of secondary encephalitis apply the funds received for the treatment of the underlying disease.

For the prevention of primary encephalitis in the territory of natural foci measures are taken to destruction of wild rodents (see Deratization)and vaccination of the population and persons working in epidemic areas (see Immunization), measures for extermination of ticks and protect people from their attacks (see pest control). People engaged in logging, hunting, exploration work, etc. should wear protective clothing - protection suit, in which the edges of the sleeves and pants tighten rubber tapes and trousers filled in boots; also apply protective grid E. N. Pavlovsky. When working in the taiga periodically carry out mutual inspections and remove the detected mites. To control mosquitoes use of DDT, HCH and other chemicals, in swamps and other in breeding sites of mosquitoes exterminate larvae pollination of poisons and neptunium.
Most patients do not dangerous to others. Hospitalization is made on clinical grounds. For the prevention of enteroviral encephalitis necessary early isolation of the sick for 3 weeks, in children's institutions is established quarantine for 3 weeks.

Anti-epidemic measures with tick-borne encephalitis are extermination of ticks and rodents, as well as in the elimination of the conditions contributing to the preservation of their nature (clearing of forests and other). Ticks in nature consume drugs DDT and HCH. The data is processed manually and aviapeleng. Workers at the logging industry, participants of search parties and others protect against tick bites overalls. Collars and cuffs grease odorous substance (camphor oil and others). In the absence of overalls shirt fill in the press, and the press - boots. Sleeves tied with ribbon. When working in the forest must often to see his body and clothes to promptly remove the stuck tick. Before using grass for litter, it must be subjected to a solar irradiation within a few hours. For the prevention of alimentary infection recommended in endemic foci in the period of activity of ticks drink only boiled milk and vaccination goats.
An important tool in the fight against tick-borne encephalitis is vaccination of people living in endemic foci, and people newly arrived in the pockets. Vaccination is killed vaccines prepared on tissue cultures or from the brain of the infected mice.
When the need for urgent measures in case of accidental infection of laboratory workers or where there are indications of tick bites, recommended the introduction of specific gamma globulin.
In a basis of preventive measures when the mosquito encephalitis is the control of vector - mosquitoes at different stages of their development. They include anti-emergence of mosquitoes: the destruction of larvae of mosquitoes's daily, measures mechanical protection. In large reservoirs and large wetlands with the aim of mosquitoes in the larva stage resort to Neftianoy and spraying of Paris greenery, use of DDT and hexachloran. Water should be stored in containers with tight-fitting lids. The water in them in epidemic season change at least once in 10 days. For the extermination inspired mosquitoes use drugs DDT and HCH in the form Farrukh Dustov, aerosol insecticide paper and suspensions. It is also recommended that fumigation of premises.
Specific prevention mosquito encephalitis developed in a different extent. The current Japanese encephalitis vaccine ineffective. To prevent American encephalitis developed effective killed vaccine. Cm. also, Disinsection, Deratization.