Encephalography

Encephalography (pneumoencephalography) is the method of roentgenologic examination of the brain by contrasting his liquor system. For electroencephalography enter the air or oxygen through a lumbar, rarely suboccipital lymphadenopathy puncture, after which produce x-rays of the skull in four or more dimensions. Encephalogram allows to judge about the state of the ventricular system intrathecal space, as well as the cross all holes and ways messages liquor system of the brain. Encephalography used in the diagnosis of post-traumatic, inflammatory, neoplastic and other brain diseases.
Cm. also Ventrikulografia.

Encephalography (from the Greek. enkephalos - the brain and grapho - writing, depict; synonym: pneumoencephalography, pneumography) - method contrast radiographic examination of spinal fluid spaces of the brain.
The essence of electroencephalography is the replacement of freely circulating in the ventricles and intrathecal space of the liquor air or oxygen (by lumbar puncture) and subsequent x-rays of the skull. By contrast, x-ray analysis clearly portrayed the ventricles of the brain and subarachnoid slit, that allows to judge about the form, size, position of the ventricles, the state intrathecal space, as well as the cross all holes and ways messages liquor system of the brain.
Intracranial dimensional processes of different Genesis compress the brain and narrow intracranial space, and the residual effects of the injury, various inflammatory processes cause the shrinkage of the brain tissue. In all these cases liquor system of the brain is deformed, change its location and size, depending on the nature, distribution and localization of the pathological process. The impact of lesions on the ventricular system varies: supratentorial located tumors deform and move the ventricular system in the direction opposite the hearth; subtentorial tumors usually cause secondary uniform hydrocephalus without displacement of the ventricular system. General reliable sign (anteroposterior the encephalogram) all surround processes of cerebral hemispheres is the offset of the ventricular system ("the shape of a butterfly") in the direction opposite to the lesion focus. Lateral ventricles does not specify the location and nature, or rather not solve the question of what proportion of the affected hemispheres developing process. Opinion on the topic can be done on the basis of the analysis of all major photos, as anteroposterior only indicate the direction of the process, side and sighted - the place of location of the tumor within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain (Fig. 1).

EEG ventricles of the brain
Fig. 1. Changing the shape of the ventricles of the brain with supratentorial located tumors: 1 front, 2 rear and 3 - side electroencephalogram.

Basal and parasagittal tumor frontal lobe different deform ("podavlyayut") of the front horns of lateral ventricles, not shifting the ventricular system aside. Tumors of the parietal lobe, in addition to "move the shape of a butterfly" from the middle line, shifting ("giving away") down the adjacent upper wall of the Central Department of the lateral ventricle on the affected side. Typical topical encephalographic a sign of tumor temporal lobe is filling defect or sharp narrowing clearance lower horns lateral ventricle on the affected side, and a sharp shift the shape of a butterfly" from the middle line. Tumors of the occipital lobe cause a filling defect or deformity back the horns of the lateral ventricle side surround education and shift it to the front. Main: characteristic median tumors (third and lateral ventricles, Monrovia holes) on the EEG is a filling defect in different departments hydrocephalic ventricles without their shift away from the midline.
Differential diagnosis between supra - and subtentorial located tumors is no problem. Unlike supratentorial tumors, subtentorial processes on the front-rear encephalogram not cause displacement of dilated cerebral ventricles from the middle line (Fig. 2). In topical diagnosis volume processes posterior cranial fossa is essential deformation of the fourth ventricle and selview water.


Fig. 2. Changing the shape of the ventricles of the brain and bulk process subtentorial localization.


Fig. 3. Changing the shape of the ventricles of the brain after suffering inflammatory process: 1 front, 2 rear electroencephalogram. Scar-atrophic changes in the left hemisphere of the cerebrum with the development of regional and General internal open hydrocephalus when spilled adhesive changes in the shells.

Currently in neurosurgical practice of frequent severe complications electroencephalography with the removal of the liquor she prefer pneumoencephalography without removal of CSF. Usually there are tanks posterior cranial fossa, and by their shape and topographical changes, one can often judge Topeka process in the posterior cranial pit. Encephalography without removal of the liquor well tolerated even by patients with processes in the posterior cranial fossa. This method is especially valuable in the early stages neurinomas auditory nerve, when arachnoiditis posterior cranial fossa and the side of the tank bridge.
Encephalography with the removal of the liquor shown in nonneoplastic diseases (focal or generalized seizures, encephalopathy different Genesis, vascular, traumatic and inflammatory lesions). For nonneoplastic diseases direct irreversible encephalographic a sign showing the benign nature of defeat, is a bulging or scar "pulling up" the upper wall of the lateral ventricle to the vault of the skull. There is no offset the ventricular system and transparent partitions from the middle line (Fig. 3). Sometimes ventricular system can be "dragged" to the side of defeat. For encephalographic paintings are characterized by asymmetry configuration of the ventricles, the difference in the form (bulging of different departments of the ventricular side of damage to the surface of the brain). In some cases it develops General the accompanying expressed in different degrees of inner courtyard with hydrocephalus spilled changes in subarachnoid cracks on the vault.