Endoscopy

Endoscopy is the examination of the inner surface of the hollow organs with the help of special devices - endoscopes. The latter are metal tubes, equipped with lighting and often optical system, increasing the image. There are more sophisticated, flexible endoscopes - gastrofibroscope, esophagogastroscopy and others, in which the image is transmitted over strands of glass fiber.
Endoscopy is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Diagnostic value endoscopy has, for example, tumors of the esophagus, stomach, when esophageal diverticula. Diagnostic value of endoscopy increases due during endoscopy to take the material from the surface of the mucous membrane of the authority for Cytology or pieces of tissue for histological study and photograph (with special photoproton) of interest to the regions of the mucous membrane. Conducting endoscopy with the medical purpose: through the endoscope to remove foreign body, polyps, cauterised ulcers and produce other manipulations.
The main types of endoscopy are bronchoscopy (see), gastroscopy (see), peritoneoscope (see), sigmoidoscopy (see), the thoracoscopy (see), ureteroscopy (see), cystoscopy (see) and esophagoscopy (see).

Endoscopy (from the Greek. endon - inside and skopeo - review) - method research hollow organs optical and lighting devices. These devices consist of optical system of the lens) and lighting (light bulb) parts, allowing clear, sometimes with slight increases and decreases, to see the considered site.
Recently some devices (gastroscopy) instead of a lens system used fiber optics (optical fibers made of fiber glass). These fibers image can be transmitted on any curved path; in addition, they have unique flexibility. The use of fiber optics in endoscopic devices greatly expands diagnostic opportunities of this method. The main methods of endoscopy - bronchoscopy (see), gastroscopy (see), peritoneoscopy (laparoscopy) (see), sigmoidoscopy (see), thoracoscopy (see), ureteroscopy (see), cystoscopy (see), esophagoscopy (see). Endoscopic devices enter usually through a natural orifice, and only when thoracoscopy and peritoneoscopy make pre hole trocar. In some units, there are specific channels through which introduce additional tools (ureteric catheter, pliers to remove the foreign body forceps or probes for taking biopsy, electromagnets for extraction of metallic foreign bodies, and so on). Endoscopy is used not only for diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes, in connection with which some of the devices are equipped with galvanothermy and electrodes for electrocoagulation.
Lately, increasingly using endoscopic method of research of the biliary tract (choledochoscopy, cholangioscopy) during surgery. In combination with the operating cholangiography choledochoscopy helps to completely remove the stones from the ducts, can detect stricture formation, inflammation of the walls, diverticula, tumors, to explore the area of Vater's nipple. Especially valuable opportunity to control the status of the common hepatic duct. Special instruments through the endoscope under the control of the surgeon may be conducted papillotomy, target biopsy, electrocoagulation. The developed design of photo and movie cameras to shoot through endoscopes considerably increase the diagnostic value of this method.