Enteritis, enterocolitis

Hepatitis is inflammation of the small intestine; enterocolitis - simultaneous inflammation of the small and large intestine. There are acute and chronic enterocolitis.
Acute enterocolitis (enteritis). Acute enteritis is rare, more often the defeat of the proceeds by type enterocolitis or gastroenterocolitis. It is found mainly in the summer and autumn months.
Acute enterocolitis can be syndrome many bacterial, parasitic and viral diseases. Acute enterocolitis may develop as a result of food poisoning (see). It is also possible due to use of alcohol, rough food, cold drinks, especially in hot weather; after a General hypothermia or overheating, alternating with hypothermia.
Sometimes he develops when idiosyncrasies (see) to certain food substances (strawberries, cheese, raspberry, black currant), and certain drugs.
Predisposing factors: weakening of the body previous illnesses, secretory insufficiency of the stomach, pancreas.
Pathological anatomy. More often found catarrhal changes of the intestinal wall with hyperemia and oedema of the mucous membrane, point hemorrhages in it.
Clinical presentation and course of the disease depend on the etiology and the previous condition of the patient. The disease starts acutely, with loss of appetite, and sometimes vomiting, salivating and diarrhea 5-10 times per day. Paroxysmal pain localized around the navel and amplified during bowel movements. Rumbling, pain, decreasing after the chair are rising again before the next bowel movement. Kal first pasty, then liquid. The predominance of fermentative dyspepsia in Calais there is a significant amount of organic acids and gas bubbles; the predominance of putrefactive dyspepsia in Calais has increased quantity of ammonia. In severe cases, patients pale, dry skin, eyes sink, language dry, lined, unpleasant smell from the mouth. Belly swollen. With abundant frequent stool occurs dehydration. Diuresis (the number of allocated urine) falls. May appear convulsionsassociated with dehydration, and depletion of the body's sodium chloride.
The forecast. In most cases, the disease can be cured completely; sometimes takes the chronic form.
Treatment. Appoint strict bed rest. In severe cases, the patient is hospitalized. Rinse the stomach through a tube and enter through it after washing 20-25 g of magnesium sulfate dissolved in 1/2 glass of water. The appropriate use of sulfa drugs (sulgin 1 g 4 times a day for three to four days). If dehydration is injected isotonic solution of sodium chloride and 5% glucose solution in 250 ml subcutaneously once daily. When low blood pressure - mezaton 1 ml of 1% solution intramuscularly.
Within 12-24 hours the patient was given only strong tea, black coffee. From the second day of the disease is recommended rice water, bilberry jelly. From the 3rd day is prescribed a diet 4 -, and 5-day diet 4 therapeutic feeding (see). The transition to a regular diet gradually.
Prevention: eating safe food, washing hands before eating and hygienic maintenance of utensils for cooking.

Enteritis, enterocolitis (enteritis, enterocolitis; from the Greek. eutera - intestine, intestines; kolon - colon).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the small intestine. As nosologic unit has allocated B. N. Samples. Enteritis rarely occur as an isolated disease, often the process simultaneously captures the stomach (gastroenteritis) and the colon (enterocolitis).
Etiology. Enteritis and colitis are of different origin: infectious specific (typhoid fever, paratyphoid, cholera, dysentery) and non-specific (influenza, pneumonia, erysipelas, pneumonia and other) and parasites (worms and other). Common causes enteritis and colitis are violations of hygiene power - consumption gross, not quite benign food, overload bowel foods rich coarse fiber, legumes, sugar, coarse bread varieties, causing the strengthening of fermentation processes in the intestine. The factors causing enteritis (AC), are also consumption
for a long time fatty foods with a lack of protein in the diet, respect for an extended period strictly sparing diet deficiency in the diet of proteins, vitamins, abuse of smoked foods, marinades, pickles and liquor. Development enteritis (enterocolitis) favour the defects of the masticatory apparatus, hasty meal, loss of bactericidal properties of gastric juice with secretory insufficiency and Express evacuation of stomach contents (hit is not detoxified from bacteria of food into the small intestine), secretory insufficiency of pancreas, and liver disease, the biliary tract.
Common causes enteritis (enterocolitis) are food poisoning (see) and intoxication (alkalis, acids, mercury, arsenic, phosphorus)and alimentary Allergy (raki, strawberries, shellfish, eggs and others) and medicines (bromine, iodine, salicylates, Adonis, and others).
Enteritis (AC) may be observed after burns of the skin, possibly because of the education in these States, a significant number gistaminopodobnykh substances.
The disease is usually in the summer months, especially in areas with high ambient temperature, as well as people working in hot shops due to excessive loss of fluid and salt since then, the consumption of copious amounts of fluid. Recent increases motor function of the intestine, causing frequent and diarrhea dehydration and increased vulnerability of the mucous membrane of the intestines. For development of summer Ponosov has a value and a sharp decrease of gastric secretion, decreased appetite.
The development of chronic enteritis (enterocolitis) is usually observed in the inept treatment of acute forms of the disease, protein starvation, Hypo - and avitaminosis, disorders of mineral metabolism that cause inflammatory and atrophic processes in the intestine.
Factors predisposing to the development of acute and chronic enteritis (enterocolitis), are the weakening of previous diseases, mental and physical overstrain.

Pathological anatomy. Acute enteritis (enterocolitis). Most of catarrhal and catarrhal-follicular forms, rarely differencesa and very rarely gangrenous, complicating alimentary dystrophy (it is often observed perforated peritonitis). Catarrhal and catarrhal-follicular forms are accompanied by edema of the mucous membrane and point hemorrhages in it, the overlays on the surface of mucus, fibrin. Vessels dilated, epithelium clusively. The inflammatory process also applies to mesenteric lymphatic vessels.
Chronic enteritis (enterocolitis). Marked redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the intestines swelling follicles, desquamation of the intestinal epithelium, vpotevanie serous and fibrinous exudate. Heavy forms are accompanied by degeneration of the intestinal wall. The small intestine is extended and expanded, mucous membrane its atrophied, villi smoothed, hardened and thickened, all the layers of the intestinal wall thinning, marked degenerative changes in nerve cells submucosal and muscular layer, and intramural nodes Meissner and Auerbach.

The clinical picture and complications. Acute enteritis (enterocolitis). The disease starts acutely and is characterized by General malaise, diarrhea (chair 5-10 times a day), pain cramping in nature mainly around the navel, which usually appear before defecation, calm down after it and are rising again before the new bowel movements. No appetite or reduced bother drowsiness, nausea, sometimes vomiting, often repeated. Beginning in vomitus contains the remains of food, and then only mucus mixed with gall. Abdominal marked rumbling, feeling transfusion fluids, growing before defecation. Kal first is pasty, then liquid and stinking, yellow and yellow-green in color, with a large number of mucus, undigested muscle fiber, starch grains, crystals fatty acids and drops of fat. The predominance of fermentative dyspepsia stool contains a large amount of organic acids and gas; when putrid dyspepsia - increased amounts of ammonia. When inflammation is localized only in the small intestine and slow passage of food through the intestines the processes of digestion may continue in the distal segments of the intestinal bacterial flora and enzymes. In such cases, in Calais will be no pathological admixtures.
Patients pale, dry lips, tongue dry and white furred, belly swollen, his eyes sunken. In severe cases, pain spreading around the belly, there are cramps in the legs, muscle pain due to dehydration, and depletion of the body chlorides. Body temperature is normal or low grade, she is feverish with acute ulcerative necrotic enteritis (enterocolitis). There are bloating and pain in the area of the small intestine. Palpation of the caecum is almost always detected the sound of the lapping (characteristic B. N. Obraztsov). The pulse is small and frequent. Hypotension. There are oliguria, microhematuria, albuminuria, caused by increased capillary permeability, a decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration. Dehydration causes the thickening of the blood, erythrocytes. When gastroenteritis to the above symptoms and joins gastric dyspepsia, when gastroenterocolites - frequent urge to have a bowel movement, tenesmus. Necrotic lesions form takes place at a high temperature, the neutrophilic leucocytosis, sometimes ends in gangrene of the bowel perforated peritonitis, accompanied by bloody diarrhea, collapse, which often leads patients to death.
In acute enteritis (enterocolitis) may exhibit the following complications: acute nephritis, cystitis, neuritis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, angiocholitis and other