Epidemiological examination

Epidemiological inspection is the method of epidemiology applied to investigate the causes of the emergence and spread of infectious diseases, identify the most effective measures for their elimination.
Tasks epidemiological survey: identifying the source (s) of infection and the possible ways of its distribution, the status of immunity, to assess the health condition of the apartment, house, community, identifying the social, natural and domestic factors that contributed to the emergence and spread of diseases, the selection of the most effective measures to eliminate the arisen disease in a given situation, and also on prevention of spread of this epidemic focus (see the Hearth of the epidemic).
Epidemiological survey is conducted usually epidemiologist or nurse - assistant epidemiologist. In some cases, epidemiological survey can be involved assistants and hygienists (assessment of water, food), zoologists and entomologists (at presence of natural focal diseases).
When epidemiological survey make a survey of the persons surrounding patient (family, doctor, close acquaintances). It is important to establish at least presumably the source of the infection, to identify all came into contact with sick and install them medical supervision for the duration of the incubation period. Inspection and sanitary survey of the center allow to assess sanitary conditions and to identify possible ways of infection transmission. You must determine the density of the house, the presence of the sick, sanitary standards, the possible presence of the parasite - vectors of infection, the presence of animals is possible sources of zoonotic diseases, water supply, latrines, nechistoplotnym etc.
Laboratory studies and epidemiological inspection allow to identify bakterionositelej, contamination of food, water, household items and kitchen utensils, and when zoonotic infections is infection of animals. Entomological researches allow to identify the types and prevalence of live vectors (insects and mites). Finally, epizootological examination makes it possible to identify epidemic among animals (wild and domestic).
When epidemiological survey card is filled epidemiological surveys; the form of such cards approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR. In the map epidemiological survey must be completed passport part, where, in particular, one should note the nature of the work, if the disease can be linked to production. Of great significance in the map epidemiological anamnesis (where and under what circumstances could occur infection). Later in the map represent the sanitary-epidemiological situation.
Correctly and carefully conducted epidemiological survey allows not only to identify the sources and routes of spread of infection in each case, but also to make a sound plan of measures on liquidation of disease, to prevent their further spread and prevention of recurrent disease.

Epidemiological inspection is the most important part of the scientific method epidemiology; used in the study of middle of an infectious disease in order to investigate the source of the infection, factors of transmission of infectious origin in concrete conditions and possibilities of emergence of new diseases.
In an epidemiological survey of the center for infectious diseases includes: a survey of the patient and of all persons, which may provide valuable epidemiological information regarding the hearth; laboratory examination of the patient, bystanders and environmental objects; sanitary survey of the center; in necessary cases to ascertain whether there and the number of vectors; for zoonoses clarification of species composition and abundance of rodents; long-term observation of the hearth.
When interviewing the patient and bystanders ask the following questions: did the relatives of a patient, colleagues, living in the same apartment or house for the same or similar diseases; did the patient before the disease anywhere to go; if the patient stranger, how and when he arrived, his profession, and other activities; not whether he participated in the slaughter, to look after the animals, washing someone else's underwear and so on; don't have the patients in the hospital or at home; where and how ate; not subjected to whether the injuries, bites of animals, etc., is Very important in the survey to find out the day of the beginning of the disease. In the conduct of the survey helps the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the area, and the awareness about infectious diseases in the neighbouring districts and regions.
Following the survey, depending on the nature of the disease is possible and appropriate to carry out laboratory tests. Material for microbiological (or virus) research can be taken from the patient, from the surrounding healthy people (and sometimes animals), of the environmental objects.
Mandatory microbiological examination of a patient are produced when diagnosed solely based on clinical data, in cases of suspected diagnosis (disease, suspicious for infection), when doubts about the accuracy of diagnosis.
Persons to communicate with patients, subjected to bacteriological examination to find out from infected patients or carriers of the infection.
Objects laboratory tests are often the feces, urine, sputum, pus, blood, mucus from throat, vomit, detachable wounded surfaces of the skin or mucous membranes, etc., can Sometimes be subjected to the examination of the material taken from the corpse (excision of a segment of bowel its contents, the blood from the heart, pieces of liver and spleen, lymph nodes and etc.,).

The diversity of research objects requires knowledge of the techniques of sampling of the material, save it and forwarding. All this is described in separate manuals on laboratory equipment.
Laboratory of environment objects is carried out with the purpose of revealing of factors of infection.
Thus, in cases where it is assumed water flare of temper, examined water of appropriate water source. When food toxic infection research subject leftover food. Often it is necessary to examine the animal raw materials (leather, wool), if the disease has arisen on the relevant industries.
Sometimes it is necessary to examine a specific population groups or animals to infection (tuberculin skin test, Malinova test) or sensitivity (skin tests Chic, skin sample dick, reaction Byrne, tusinova skin test and others).
When sanitary inspection focus primarily pay attention to the nature of dwellings (private or communal apartment, hostel, etc.,), population density, number of children, their age. Assess the sanitary condition of housing, the character and content of latrines, hygiene skills of the residents. Reveal patterns of drinking water supply, assess the sanitary state of water supply sources, nutrition, etc., In intestinal infections establish flies, their number, place of emergence in similar; in malaria - emergence of mosquitoes, as well as the places of their wintering and day's rest. In other transmissible diseases clarify the species composition of vectors (insects and mites), their number, the plant habitat.
When zoonotic infectious diseases are conducting epidemiological examination. Often, information about diseases among animals can be obtained from the veterinary service. In some cases, the epidemiologists have to conduct laboratory tests of animals. When plague, tularemia, zoonotic infectious encephalitis, hemorrhagic fevers, etc., the sanitary-epidemiological service studies rodent species composition, abundance and availability of the epidemic.
It should be considered immutable rule that epidemiological survey is not a momentary action, and requires repeated visits to the hearth and the long-term observations.
In such a chronic infectious diseases as tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, epidemiological examination takes the form of medical examination.
The ultimate task of epidemiological surveys - synthesis of the obtained information and elaboration of measures aimed at the elimination of the source.
Outbreak of infectious diseases and the emergence of the epidemic using epidemiological surveys establish their causes and develop the most appropriate system of anti-epidemic measures. When epidemiological examination usually guided card epidemiological survey of the hearth (form № 171, a, 1716, approved by the USSR Ministry of health 16/VII 1954).
Currently, the term "epidemiological examination" apply also to certain non-communicable widespread diseases (tumors, hypertension, atherosclerosis and other). The task of the epidemiological research is to investigate the nature of these diseases in different countries of the world among different peoples. Much attention is paid to the spread of tumors (see Tumors, epidemiology).