Hygienic and epidemiological significance of water

Water is included in any living organism. The human body weight by 65-70% consists of water. Water and food supplies the body with essential trace elements (iodine, fluorine, cobalt and others), taking part in the heat transfer of the organism and necessary for the maintenance of water-salt balance of the body.
Water is essential for the maintenance of the purity of the body, homes, streets. It is one of the powerful factors of hardening of the body.
Mineral water - generous gift of nature. They allow you to create many balneological resorts. These waters contain iodine, bromine, boron, various salts. Hot water so-called thermal springs is used for heating of cities, industrial and municipal enterprises, hotbeds, hothouses.
It is thus clear, the importance of water in human life. However, as other factors of the external environment, water can have negative influence, due to the peculiarities of its chemical composition or the presence of specific bacterial contamination. Through the water can be transmitted to humans pathogens of infectious diseases (mainly intestinal infections) - typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, dysentery, tularemia, leptospirosis, etc. in Addition, water can be a source of infection by some worms and indirect cause of malaria.
Biological value of water to understand the impact on population health are insufficient or excessive water content of some chemical elements. When using such water may occur the so-called geochemical endemic. The most famous geochemical endemias is endemic goiter, fluorosis, oravska disease. Preventive measures in the fight against endemic goiter reduced to add iodine to salt in an organized manner.
By drinking water containing high concentrations of fluorine, there endemic fluorosis. On the surface of the teeth appear yellow stains, teeth become fragile enamel is destroyed, in severe cases, may be affected bone and ligaments. The lack of fluorine in water increases the damage of teeth caries, especially in children. Currently installed hygienic norm content of fluoride in the water in the range of 0.7-1.5 mg/L. Prevention of dental fluorosis is to korrigirovanija fluoride content in drinking water.