Erythrocytes

Erythrocytes are red blood cells. The number of erythrocytes in 1 mm3 blood in men 4 000-5 500 500 000 women 4 000-5 000 000 000. The main function of erythrocytes - participation in the gas exchange. Red blood cells carry oxygen uptake in the lung, transportation and return it to tissues and organs, as well as the transfer of carbon dioxide in the lungs. Erythrocytes are also involved in regulation of acid-base balance and water-salt exchange in a number of enzymatic and metabolic processes. Erythrocytes - nuclear free cell consisting of a semi-permeable protein-lipid membranes and spongy substance in cells which contain hemoglobin (see). The shape of the erythrocyte - biconcave disk. Normally, the diameter of erythrocytes ranging from 4.75 V to 9.5 MK. Determination of the amount of erythrocytes - see Erythrocytopenia. The reduction in the average diameter of erythrocytes - mikrocytos is observed in some forms of iron deficiency and haemolytic anaemia, the increase in the average diameter of erythrocytes - microsites - at deficiency of vitamin B12 and some diseases of the liver. Red blood cells with a diameter of more than 10 MK, oval and hyperchromic - megacity - appear when pernicious anemia. The presence of red blood cells of various sizes - anisoles - accompanies most of anemia; in severe anemia he is combined with poikilocytosis - a change in the shape of red blood cells. In some inherited form of hemolytic anemia meet their characteristic erythrocytes - oval, sickle, machinewide.
Color of RBCs under the microscope at colouring Romanovsky - Giemsa - pink. The color intensity is dependent on the content of hemoglobin (see Hyperchromasia, hypochromia). Immature red blood cells (pronormality) contain basophilic substance, is painted blue. The accumulation of hemoglobin blue gradually replaced pink, erythrocyte becomes polychromatophilia (purple), which tells about his youth (normoblasts). When electron microscope colouring alkaline dyes basophilic substance freshly isolated from bone marrow erythrocytes is revealed in the form of grains and threads. These red blood cells are called reticulocytes. The number of reticulocytes characterizes the ability of the bone marrow to the regeneration of red blood cells, normally their 0,5 - 1% of all red blood cells. The granularity of reticulocytes should not be confused with basophilic grain found in fixed and stained smears at diseases of blood lead poisoning. In severe anemia and leukemia in the blood may appear nuclear erythrocytes. Taurus Jolly and ring Kubota represent the remains of the kernel in case of incorrect maturation. Cm. also the Blood.

Erythrocytes (from the Greek. erythros red and kytos - cell) - red blood cells.
The number of erythrocytes in healthy men 4 000-5 500 500 000 to 1 mm3, women - 4 000-5 000 000 000 1 mm3. The human erythrocytes have the form of a biconcave disk with a diameter of 4.75-9,5 MK (average 7,2-7,5 MK) and volume - 88 MK3. Red blood cells do not have a nucleus, have the shell and the stroma, containing hemoglobin, vitamins, salts, enzymes. Electron microscopy showed that the stroma of normal red blood cells more homogeneous, the shell them is a semi-permeable membrane lipidnog-protein structure.

megacity and poikilocytes
Fig. 1. Megacity (1), poikilocytes (2).
velocity
Fig. 2. Velocity.
microsite and Metrocity
Fig. 3. Microzide (1), macrozide (2).
the reticulocytes
Fig. 4. The reticulocytes.
the bullock of Howell - Jolly
Fig. 5. The bullock of Howell - Jolly (1), the ring of Kubota (2).

The main function of erythrocytes - absorption of haemoglobin (see) of oxygen in the lungs, transportation and return it to tissues and organs, as well as the perception of carbon dioxide, which the red blood cells carry into the lungs. Features of erythrocytes are also regulation of acid-base balance in the body (buffer system), support of isotone blood I tissues, the adsorption is carried amino acids and their transportation to the tissues. The life span of red blood cells on average 125 days; in diseases of the blood, it is reduced significantly.
At various anemia there are changes in the shape of red blood cells: see the red blood cells in the form of mulberry berries, pears (poikilocytes; Fig. 1, 2), palloni, balls, sickle, oval (Fig. 2); values (anisoles): erythrocytes in the form of macro - and microtitan (Fig. 3), sisalto, giganttits and megalocytes (Fig. 1, 1); color: red blood cells in the form of hypochromia and hyperchromia (in the first case the color indicator is less than one due to a deficiency of iron and the second more units due to increased volume of red blood cells). About 5% of erythrocytes at colouring by Giemsa - Romanovsky have not rosy-red, and purple, as they both turn and sour paint (eosin) and main (methylene blue). This is polychromatophil, which is a measure of the regeneration of blood. More accurately on the regeneration processes indicate the reticulocytes (erythrocytes with grainy thread-substance - mesh containing RNA), normally constituting 0.5-1% of all red blood cells (Fig. 4). Indicators pathological regeneration of erythropoiesis are basophilic punctate in erythrocytes, killed Howell-Jolly and ring Kubota (the remains of the nuclear substance of normoblastov; Fig. 5).
In some anemias, often hemolytic, protein, erythrocytes becomes antigenic properties with the formation of antibodies (IgG). Thus there are anti-erythrocytary autoantibodies - hemolysins, agglutinin, opsonins, which causes destruction of red blood cells (see Hemolysis). Cm. also Immunohematology, Blood.