Essentuki - largest drinking resort of the country, is located in mountain-steppe area at the height of 600-630 m above sea level. In 1798 at the place of the resort was built military fortress and a Cossack settlement. In 1810, Dr. F. P. Haaz visited the settlement and first described three sources of mineral waters. Essentuki grew up in a nice, comfortable resort, which is annually treated about 130 000 patients. The resort has received world popularity not only because of the beautiful waters of their sources, but also because it has always been a center, where he developed the basic principles, indications and methods of drinking water treatment and other types of internal use of mineral waters. In Yessentuki worked for many years large balneologists Century A. Alexandrov, A. S. Vishnevsky, V. G. dick and many others. In the experimental laboratories for many years studied essentukskoe water K. M. Bykov, V. D. Zepalov, A. N. Lida.

Fig. 4. Drinking gallery of the source № 17. Essentuki.

In Yessentuki captured 16 sources of mineral water. For internal use, with special successfully used the following:
a) Acidulous hydrocarbonate-chloride-sodium water (saline-alkaline). The gem of the Caucasian Mineral Waters referred to as the source of Essentuki № 17. Characteristic of its water (well № 46):

The spring water rich and other elements; it contains magnesium, calcium, lithium, ammonium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and iodine and bromine, boric and silicic acid (Fig. 4). The content of organic substances in water negligible. Water sources group Essentuki # 4 is similar to water № 17. It contains the same macro - and microelements and differ only by the level of total mineralization, which is 8.6 g/L.
b) Carbon dioxide hydrogen sulphide-hydrocarbonate-sodium water. Drilling № 1 was opened in 1936 By its chemical composition of the water of this well is significantly different Ute old water Essentuki №17 and 4.
Description of its composition and properties:

Water contains almost all of the same micro - and makrokinetika elements that and Yessentuki number 17, but in slightly different proportions.
The mineral water bottling plant is poured in the year 70 million bottles of water Yessentuki number 17 and 4.
The pride of the resort is the best in the Soviet Union mud baths them. N. A. Semashko, built in 1913, architect Schreter. Daily here let some 2000 different mud treatments. The resort is organized exemplary inhalation, in which daily released 2000 procedures.
Treatment at the resort for patients with the following diseases: neurosis with violation of secretory and motor function of the stomach, chronic gastritis, saying disease stomach and duodenal ulcers, diseases of operated stomach not earlier than 2-3 months after surgery, chronic enteritis and colitis of various etiology, tility, sigmoidit and proctitis with motor and secretory violations, neuroendocrine diarrhea, diseases of liver, biliary tract and gall bladder, pancreatic diabetes mild and severe without tendency to acidosis, obesity I-II degree.