Senses (organa sensuum) are peripheral to the ends of the receptors, which are functionally and structurally related to the Central nervous system. The development of the senses in phylogenesis and ontogenesis is also closely related to the Central nervous system. Sense organs, on the one hand, protect from external inadequate irritation receptor cells, and on the other by means of additional structures (the fluid cavity, inserted, supporting cells, and others) provide certain optimal conditions for the normal functioning of these analyzers. I. P. Pavlov has convincingly proved that through the senses interaction of the organism with the environment. From irritation is transmitted to the Central nervous system, where the synthesis and analysis of these stimuli. Due pulses perceived by the senses, each person creates certain sensations and images, is the emotional mood of the Central nervous system. Lenin in his book "the Materialism and empirio-criticism has developed a philosophical materialist theory of reflection of the material world. C. I. Lenin showed that in the most elementary form reflection is sensual in nature, however, and in this form it gives some images of the outside world, controlled by the consciousness; in the sensations are recognised outside world, matter.
All the variety of external and internal stimuli is perceived by exteroreceptors, interoreceptors and innervated with proprioreceptors.
To exteroreceptors include education, perceiving General irritation (temperature, pain, vibration, pressure, tactile sense). They are located in the skin and mucous membranes. Special receptors (chemical, sound, light) are in the senses. Special analyzers for perception of electromagnetic waves, x-ray, cosmic and radioactive radiation in humans lacking, although the cells of the body at these exorbitant irritation damaged.
The interoreceptors perceive irritations from the internal organs and vessels (chemoreceptors). These impulses in norm not subjectively perceived, but the Central nervous system gets through them regular information about the state of internal organs.
Proprioceptive irritation coming from the joints and inner ear, inform the Central nervous system on the position of the body in space.
General structure of all the senses are essentially identical. The peripheral part of the analyzer is used for perception of stimuli, intermediate - to transmit impulses in the Central (cortical) part carried out the analysis and synthesis of the information received.
- Leather The bodies of the skin
- The organ of vision
- The eyeball
- Camera eye
- The vitreous body
- Auxiliary devices eyes
- The muscles of the eyeball
- Lacrimal apparatus
- The development of the eye
- Abnormalities of the eye
- Phylogeny of the organ of vision
- Predverno-cochlear body
- Organ of taste
- Organ of smell
- The failure ideological theory of racism