Electronic computing machines (computers)

Methods of processing of biological information. Biological information is information about the structure and functional state of biological objects, which may be expressed in verbal descriptions, microphotography, schemes, figures, waveform, etc.,
In the last time there was a rapid development of biological and medical electronics; widespread oscilloscope view method of biological and medical information, such as electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography and other methods. In the course of research work and in the process of diagnosis, the doctor and biologist to carry out processing of biological information, i.e. to assess it. Analysis of biological information, in particular ECG, EEG, can be visual, graphic, automatic. In the end analysis is provided by the presentation of information in the form most suitable for further evaluation. We can distinguish three stages of analysis of biological information: decoding or data conversion into digital form, statistical and mathematical methods, comparative analysis of the data.
Decryption is the recognition of the characteristic elements of the curve and the calculation of certain (amplitude, time and other) indicators. Usually decipher produce visually, less graphically (for example, using planimeters). Created special devices for automatic decryption; produced various systems for automatic data capture, presented in the form of a waveform.
Most convenient for entering in computer information recorded on a magnetic tape. When the automatic or semi-automatic analysis in the course of reading the data from the media are the identification and selection of specified indicators. So, when the automatic analysis of EEG apply the methods of allocation of the envelope or summation, when some measure the average characteristics of the process. There is a widespread methods of measurement of the intensity and spectrum of the EEG. Developed special instruments, integrators and analyzers with which make the selection of preset rhythms and the study of their integral power.
Statistical and mathematical evaluation of the received data is a mandatory part of the scientific analysis of biological information. Calculation of a variety of mathematical and statistical indicators not only provides an estimate of the accuracy of experimental data, but also allows you to explore the subtle mechanisms of biological phenomena. In particular, is very promising application of the theory of random functions. In electroencephalography is probabilistic methods and correlation analysis. When the correlation analysis can be computed auto - and cross-correlation function. Autocorrelation function is the result of mapping of the investigated process with its copies joined on set intervals. Such analysis allows you to select periodic and random components of the analyzed process. When comparing two biological processes can be calculated cross-correlation function, for which you can define the moments of the greatest communication between processes, for example, you can install the dependence of the reaction from certain impacts or to find logical answers among the random fluctuations. In electroencephalography autocorrelogram allow us to judge the frequency of bioelectric processes, and crosscurriculum - phase correlation of fluctuations in various parts of the brain (see Fig.). In recent times increasingly important methods of frequency analysis. Explore the biological rhythms of various organs and systems; study the oscillations of different ages, including very long (to days) and very short (up to hundreds of kilohertz).
Comparison of these data with known standards or deviations is the final stage of processing of biological information. In the comparative evaluation is determined by the degree of similarity of the information known phenomena, i.e. its novelty. In medicine this stage corresponds to the diagnosis or identification of symptoms and syndromes. However, diagnosis is the process that involves integrating a wide range of data processed by different methods. During the processing of biological information ultimate goal is to structural or functional features of the investigated object to Express some qualitative or quantitative indicators.

Correlation analysis of EEG: 1 - typical autocorrelogram normal electroencephalogram (Brie); 2 - autocorrelogram EEG patient with right-hand swelling of the brain. Below are samples of the original electroencephalograms (Brie and Barlow); 3 - mutual correlation of electroencephalograms two hemispheres of the brain of a healthy person. The top label values of the time delay (in millisec); 4 - the same in a patient with right-hand meningioma (Brie).