Computer technology

Computer technology - electronic device intended for collection, transmission, storage, processing and delivery of information. Often the term "electronic computing equipment" identify with another - "electronic computing machine" (computer). Essentially the same, in addition to computers, devices of electronic computing equipment can be attributed electronic devices, for the transmission of information (various data on the distance. These devices allow you to combine multiple computers in a single complex or enter data into the computer with remote from her points, as well as to share the results of calculations.
Computers are divided into digital and analog. In turn digital computers are divided into universal and control.
Mainframes intended for solution of tasks (information processing), the specific nature of which is not specified in its development. Mainframe consists of a set of devices of various functional purpose, connected by wires. A specific set of devices, integrated computers of this type, entirely determined by the nature of the problems for which this machine is designed. Essentially all the devices in the computer can be attributed to one of the following groups: 1) input devices intended to enter information and programs for computers; 2) a storage device that stores information; 3) the arithmetic device that processes information according to a given program; 4) output devices, provides delivery of results; 5) control devices, coordinating and controlling the operation of separate devices and computers in General.
Computer storage devices are divided into operational and external. Online - fast, low capacity; it stores the data used in this step computing; all other information is stored in an external memory is relatively slow acting and high capacity. In today's computers are accepted (constructively and is issued) memory and the arithmetic unit to unite in a single unit-the Central computer (CPU), which with the help of special devices channels that are in a Central computer, connect other devices, which are called peripherals. The modern computer is a complicated complex, the operation of which the entry of the computational process) automated using special control programs that are part of computer software.
Control computer intended for control of processes in various fields. Information entered in them, is data about the course of any process, received from the sensors. The results of processing (computing) are implemented through the device, providing a required course managed process. Analog computing machine (AVM) are intended for solution of the equations, electronic simulation of various processes.
Nowadays computers are widely used in medicine for the purposes of machine diagnostics, construction of automated control systems (ACS).

Electronic computing machines (computers). Basic circuit elements computers are electronic devices - electron tubes or transistors (see Electronic amplifiers). Computers in comparison with other types of computers (the calculating machine, keyboards Electromechanical machine) are more fast, versatile and reliable, and most importantly - more automated. Before working in the computer introduced the program of calculations and initial data for solving the problem, after which the calculations are made automatically to obtain the final result. Besides the usual mathematical and logical operations on a given program, the computer can then conditional transition, changing the program of calculation depending on the interim results or other additional conditions. This feature of the computer (the controllability) at high speed (up to 1 000 000 operations per second) allows you to perform very complex calculation, control of technological processes, to make logical and mathematical processing of experimental results or clinical analysis continuously in the course of the study (see Cybernetics).
On the principle of computers divided into analog and digital. In analog computers numbers or processes subject mathematical or logical processing, are replaced with their corresponding continuous values of electric currents or voltages with whom and perform the necessary operations. Precision of calculations is determined by measurement errors and lies within 10-0,1%. Analog computers mainly used for solving integral and differential equations, modeling and management processes in real time, especially if you do not require great precision.
In the digital computer calculations are made with the help of elements in the finite number of discrete States (usually in two, ten). Therefore, before entering continuous processes should be presented in digital form that is carried out by means of special converters "similar code". The accuracy of calculation is determined by the bit width is the number of digits (bits) each cell of the "memory" (usually 7-10 decimal digits). Almost on a digital computer with the program can be achieved with any required accuracy.
Modern computers consist of the following main units. 1. The arithmetic unit, which produces basic operations. 2. Storage device (there are long-term and operational). In long-term memory data stored on magnetic disks, drums, strips or punched cards. The duration of data storage and the amount of long-term storage devices are virtually unlimited, but the rate of treatment the less, the greater the volume. Random access memory is usually on ferromagnetic elements, cathode-ray tubes or on electronic lamps. The search of information in the operating memory of the device of the order of millionths of a second, but it is always limited. 3. The input device. 4. The output device. The input is carried out with punched tapes, punched cards, magnetic tapes. Conclusion in most cases is printing device (in modern computer input and output data - the slowest operations). 5. The controller provides automatic operation of all computer devices in accordance with the program.
A typical modern computer of average power demand premises in 40-60 m2, 5 - 20 staff, food 10-20 ket.
Main areas of application of computers in medicine and biology, the following. 1. Disease diagnostics, forecast and choice of the optimal variant of treatment, classification of biological objects. 2. Automatic processing of experimental and clinical data (emphasis regular components of the EEG and NeuroGrammar, spectral and correlation analysis of biological processes, calculation and classification of blood cells or histological preparations, data analysis radiography, data processing x-ray examination). 3. Implementation of the mathematical and physical models (modeling neural networks, behavior, metabolism in the body or individual cells, individual organs or systems of the body, the behavior of populations of animals). 4. Stereotactic calculations during operations on the brain. 5. Automation of processing of medical archival materials. 6. Prediction of pharmacological properties of substances on their physico-chemical characteristics. 7. Automatic control of artificial breathing and circulation during operations and when monitoring patients in serious condition. 8. Scheduling and automation long and expensive experiments. There is a tendency to the further expansion of areas of use of computers in biology and medicine.