Evolutionary doctrine

Evolutionary doctrine is a set of ideas about the mechanisms and regularities of the historical changes in the organic nature.
Doctrine of evolution maintains the continuity of the development of the organic world. The origins of evolutionary ideas date back to antiquity. Philosophers natural scientists of Ancient Greece and Rome (Democritus, Anaxagoras, Aristotle, lukretsiy and others) expressed ideas on the development and conversion of organisms and attempted to identify the driving forces of these phenomena. However, the conclusions of the ancient philosophers did not based on systematic knowledge and had the character of guesswork.
In the epoch of the middle ages until the 15th century in the development of evolutionary theory was known stagnation. This is due to the dominance in the time of religious dogmatism and scholasticism, which led to the preaching of the absolute constancy in the whole of nature (all kinds, once appeared in a divine act of creation, forever remain unchanged).
In 15-18 centuries due to the great geographical discoveries led to a rapid accumulation of knowledge about nature. There was a need for their systematization. One of the founders of classical works on the taxonomy of the organic world was a Swedish naturalist K. Linnaeus (1707-1778). As a supporter of the dominant theory of divine creation, and claiming that "every kind is the offspring of one pair, created by God at creation of the world", Linnaeus still allowing a limited speciation.
In the second half of the 18th century doctrine of evolution was further developed. In the writings of W. Bonn, J. Robin, J. Buffon taught various hypotheses about the development of nature, which played a progressive role in the development of natural science. Exceptionally large impact on the materialistic explanation of the laws of nature had a French materialists (Lamarti, Diderot, Helvetia), rejecting the idea of a deity. Known contribution to the development of evolutionary ideas contributed Russian scientists M. Century Lomonosov, A. N. Radischev, K. F. Wolf, A. A. Kaverznev. In particular, A. N. Radischev created a "ladder of substances" - from minerals to man and could not find a place in it for "the Creator".
The first attempt of creation of the complete doctrine of the evolution of living beings belongs J. B. to Lamarck (1744-1829). In his work "Philosophy of Zoology provides the main objections to the metaphysical ideas of eternity and immutability of species. The study of the diversity of animals and plants has allowed Lamarckian to make an assumption about the presence of progressive evolution. Recognizing the possibility of the inheritance of acquired traits, to factors determining the occurrence of these signs, Lamarck was attributed only active direct influence of the external environment.
G. Cuvier (1769-1832), using the comparative method in the field of anatomy and paleontology, received enormous factual material in favor of evolution and ideas for adaptation of organisms to the environment and interdependence of individual parts and organs inside the body. Cuvier established the pattern of change of animal forms in time and showed that the closer to the geological the present, the more similarities between fossil and living forms. However, under the influence of the theory of the divine act of creation, Cuvier with his student A. de Robinie tried to explain the problem of changing forms of animals idealistic theory of catastrophes.
the 19th century was marked by serious discoveries in various fields of natural science, which has enriched the doctrine of evolution.
This could include the works Including lies in Geology, which rejected the view Cuvier for action any special forces at various natural changes in the Earth, the cell theory So Swanne (1839)to reaffirm the unity of nature, as well as fundamental research in the field of embryology, paleontology, biogeography, selection, comparative anatomy. A significant contribution to the development of evolutionary ideas contributed Russian scientists-naturalists K. M. Baer, K. F. Rule and other

Evolutionary doctrine - the doctrine of continuity of the historical development of living forms.
The main sections and directions of the evolution theory, released today: the origin of life; proof of evolution of the living; factors of evolution - relationships of an organism with the environment, variation and heredity, the struggle for existence and selection, trends and patterns of the evolutionary process (speciation, organic expediency, progress and regress; phylogeny of flora and fauna, the connection between the ontogenesis and phylogenesis and others); management of evolution (artificial formation of new forms, impact on the process of speciation).
According to the doctrine of evolution, all living species of animals, plants and micro-organisms arose by converting pre-existing.
Species change and give rise to subsequent species evolving in turn into new species. Evolution determines the development and larger taxonomic units - genera, families, orders, classes and types.
Ideas about the origin and development of organisms date back to antiquity. The idea of natural origin of living organisms was widespread in the ancient world. Philosophers natural scientists of ancient Greece and Rome have expressed the idea of converting organisms and did speculative attempts to identify the factors of evolution of living forms. In the middle ages, in the period of feudalism, when dominated religious dogmatism, new, significant contribution to the science about the development of the organic world made was not. Views same ancient thinkers were distorted in the spirit of religious concepts. For the whole period of the middle ages a step forward in the development of ancient knowledge was made in the 11 - 13th centuries mainly by the efforts of Arab scholars.
Modern science, as pointed out by F. Engels, beginning in the second half of the 15th century with the emergence and development of capitalist relations.
Economic progress and the transition to the new socio-economic structure, development of crafts, trade growth, great geographical discoveries, the search for new markets and precious metals have stimulated numerous travel, accompanied by a huge accumulation of Zoological and Botanical material. Intensive creative work was in all fields of science. Biological Sciences was enriched by wonderful discoveries and new ideas.
However, until the early 19th century in biology in the views on wildlife dominated idealistic and metaphysical beliefs. Metaphysical worldview attributed to organic nature of absolute continuity. The number of species of all
animals and plants, once incurred, was conceived unchanged, but with the development of natural Sciences metaphysical view of the nature increasingly came into conflict with the new scientific data. In the mid-18th century begin to appear idea that organic world not only exists, but is in the process of continuous change. Although the facts, testifying in favor of evolutionary theory, in most aspects was built in the first half of the 19th century, the emergence of the idea about the development of organisms was prepared in the second half of the 18th century, a Number of philosophers and scientists of that time expresses evolutionary views contrary officially accepted dogma of the constancy of species.
A prominent place in the history of evolutionary theory belongs J. Buffon (1707-1788). He developed the idea of the self-conception of organisms of tiny organic particles, recognized the origin of different groups of animals from common ancestors and allowed the flexibility species in time under the influence of food and domestication.
The first evolutionist is great French scientist J. B. Lamarck (1744-1829). His "Philosophy of Zoology" (1809) is the largest generalization of the accumulated biological knowledge is an attempt to create a first integral of the theory of evolution. The teachings of Lamarck was coldly received by his contemporaries; it was revolutionary for its time.
However, under the influence of ideas of Lamarck is becoming more and more scientists on the path of recognition of the evolution of organisms.
A supporter of the idea of evolution and the other was a prominent French scientist - Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844)who attached great importance to the variability of animals direct influence of external conditions. He believed that species change if the environment changes, and change because change; species disappear naturally when the organization does not comply with the environment in which they live. It should be noted that these views in the Bud is the idea of natural selection. However, harmoniously developed the theory of evolution of the organic world Saint-Hilaire not created. In particular, unsuccessfully ended for him famous controversy with G. Cuvier (1769-1832), the largest French scientist of his time, but a staunch supporter of constancy of species and defender biblical dogma of creation. The dispute was about the plan of the structure of animals. Saint-Hilaire, protecting a far-fetched accusation about the similarity of the structure of cephalopod molluscs and vertebrates, tried to prove that the differences between animals is a modification of the unity of the organization of their structure. Clearly proving that the organization structure of molluscs and vertebrates significantly different, Cuvier thus attacked the doctrine of evolution, because a single plan of structure animals Saint-Hilaire reflected his evolutionary views about the kinship between animals of different systematic groups. Himself Cuvier, despite its metaphysical views objectively contributed to the triumph of the idea of evolution. He entered the history of the development of biological Sciences as a reformer systematics, the founder of paleontology and historical Geology, as one of the founders of comparative anatomy, i.e. those of Sciences, the success of which contributed to the justification of evolutionary theory.
That all living beings are exposed to constant variability and higher forms evolved from the lowest, for the first time proved Including Darwin (1809-1882), who inflicted a crushing blow metaphysical beliefs. For the first time in the history of science Darwin collected and brought in well-regulated system of evidence in favor of evolutionary theory.
Important prerequisites for the creation of a truly scientific evolutionary teachings gave systematics. The accumulation of huge material allowed to state the fact of variability of species and to conclude that the subordination is some systematic other categories is the result of descent from common ancestors and the degree of divergence of each of them.
Morphology has allowed to establish that within each type of the animal Kingdom there is a close similarity included in this type of form, explain the unity of structure. All forms have some bodies of different features, but developing of similar beginnings. The bodies with a similar structure and provisions, called homologous. The similarity of the same structure does not depend on the way of life of the animals and can be explained only by the presence of consanguinity. But, although the unity of the plan generally does not extend beyond the modern types of the animal Kingdom, is still among the living, and especially among extinct organisms, there are so-called intermediate, or teams, forms. They are as if on the verge between neighboring groups, the symptoms of which combine. The existence of modular forms is valuable evidence in favor of evolution, indicating a genetic link between adjacent categories.
In embryology evidence in favor of evolution theory is a General similarity of embryos of different species of fauna that draws attention K. M. Baer (1792-1876) and other scientists. The similarity between the embryos and larvae of animals, sharply differing in adulthood, Darwin explained from the point of view of development: community structure is related to a common origin. Research in the field of embryology allowed Muller (F. Muller) in 1864 and Haeckel (E. Haeckel in 1866 to formulate biogenetic law (see), which plays an essential role in the study of the evolutionary process.
Paleontology, which clearly draws a change in time, gave no less important evidence of evolution. Closer to the present, the more is the similarity of extinct and living groups of animals.
In favor of evolutionary theory shows and biogeography is the study of the laws of distribution of organisms on earth. Most similar fauna youngest realms - Palearctic and Nearctic, since the separation their geologically occurred recently. The longer you have been isolated zoogeographic realm, the more different the local fauna.
Data from all these Sciences were known to biologists at the end of 18 - beginning of 19 centuries, but only in the light of the teachings of Darwin they were the evidence of evolutionary theory.
The victory of Darwin's theory of evolution was prepared, in all earlier development of biological Sciences, the works of scientists, which Darwin himself believed their predecessors. Among them Darwin called and Russian scientist - paleontologist Keyserling. Even in the most unfavorable period of national science development in Russia were bold thinkers, innovators, not only used the achievements of Western European scientists, but also in much of them ahead. The forerunners of Darwin should be considered P. Goryainov, A. Kaverznev, Ya Kaidanow, And. pander, candidate of Rule and other
The mechanism of transformation of life forms include, according to Darwin, two main factors: genetic variation and natural selection, which is a consequence of the struggle for existence. "Struggle for existence" is a metaphorical expression, which emphasised Darwin himself. In the course of the development of evolutionary theory of these provisions have been further developed.
The modern theory of evolution of the organic world is based on a solid Foundation of corpuscular theory of heredity (see). The basic laws of inheritance of traits were first opened, by Mendel and published in 1866, However, they have remained unknown to the wide circle of scientists to 1900 - time re-opening. Didn't know about them and Darwin, otherwise it could easily refute the objections of opponents of the idea of natural selection on the "dissolution" of the characteristics in the progeny.
Of Mendel's work has stimulated the development of genetics and lay down in a basis of construction of modern ideas about genetic changes. Cytological research proved that in the phenomena of heredity plays a leading role chromosomal apparatus of the kernel of a fertilized egg. It was found that for the genetic structure of the nuclear unit responsible deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Darwin considered hereditary variability as a factor in the evolutionary process that creates material for natural selection. Physical interpretation of hereditary variability received in the light of the data of modern genetics (see), which was a proof of the correctness of ideas of Darwinism.
One of the major achievements of the modern theory of evolution is the discovery and study of the fact that the elementary evolving unit is the individual and not look, and population (see). In natural same populations b a hidden mode is a great number of mutations.
Already at present experimental biology showed that the bulk of the evolutionary material supply mutations, well studied by nature and properties of different forms. They are the basic genetic changes that determine all known changes of characteristics, properties and norms reactions in organisms. Together they make the "uncertain" variability that Darwin put in a basis of the evolutionary process.
In the theory of natural selection, Darwin has solved one of the great mysteries of nature: functional harmony and a perfect adaptation of plants and animals to the environment. Evolution of species and their groups through the evolution of adaptations to the environment, and evolutionary process runs as an adaptive process. It should be noted that groups of organisms, which came on the evolutionary path of specialization, will go further on the way deeper specialization. New groups of organisms originate not from specialized representatives, but from rather primitive. The law of natural selection, outdoor Darwin, in the words of K. A. Timiryazev, is "the essence of Darwinism". This is the leading factor of organic evolution.
The process of speciation and the process of the elaboration of expediency is a consequence of natural selection - that is, the material concept of Darwinism. Natural selection, Darwin,is a historical factor explaining the main features of the modern system of the organic world. The problem of natural selection covers all levels of organization of biological matter: a molecular-genetic and ontogenetic, population-species and the biosphere. But if Darwin could lead only indirect evidence of the existence and role of natural selection, but now science has conclusively, direct proof of his real, creative role in the evolutionary process. The diversity of organisms is a common cause - natural selection.

Developing the theory of natural selection and collecting evidence for the existence of processes taking place in nature, Darwin was convinced that mankind owes its existence to the gradual evolution of one of the trunks of the animal world, i.e. happened in the same way as all kinds of animals and plants. Their evidence Darwin based on the data of comparative anatomy and embryology. Confirming his theory paleontological data at that time were still poor, in addition, incorrectly interpreted, and serological - were not even known. This provision Darwin's theory was met by the most fierce resistance on the part of all the reactionary forces of science, as well as the Church and the bourgeois state.
According to modern views over 25 million years BC in the North of Africa lived monkeys - proprietary, which belong to the common ancestors of modern apes and humans. In the process of evolution they gave two lines: one led to the common ancestor of the Gibbon and orang, other forms called Tripitaka. The latter, who lived for 8 million years BC, are the ancestors of the chimpanzees, gorillas and humans. Driopiteka, widespread in the Old World, gave one branch, which led to the common ancestor of gorillas and chimpanzees, and another developed in the direct ancestors of man.
The most ancient representatives of the people are APE people. These include Pithecanthropus, sinanthrop, Heidelberg man and Atlanta, who lived approximately 1 million - 400 thousand years ago. Their remains judge about the features of the first, the oldest, stage of hominid evolution. Second, an ancient, famous for the remains of the Neanderthals, who lived 100-200 thousand years BC, and is called Neanderthal stage (valley Neandertal, at the mouth of the river Düsseldorf, near Dusseldorf, Germany). Third, a new stage is represented by the human remains, at its General physical type is similar to a modern, differing from the latter more body length, wide face, and very low long skull. At the place of the first discovery of the remains of cave CROs-magnon in France - representatives of the new stage called CRO-magnons (40-25 thousand years BC).
Several factors played a role in the development of man from APE-like ancestors. Man is qualitatively different from animals, it can't directly apply the laws of development, which explains the evolution of animals. During the evolution of hominids progressively developing bipedalism and brain, is differentiated structure and functional activity of hands, formed elastic arch of the foot and occurs in its final form. Intensively developed various ways of mutual relations, including articulate speech. Many important qualitative features of the man has developed in connection with the establishment and improvement of work processes. Human ancestors can be called by humans since then, as they started manufacturing the first primitive tools. This moment of the evolution of man and represents a quantum leap - the transition from the animal state to person.
Darwinism has stood the test of time and continues to be "single evolutionary doctrine" (K. A. Timiryazev), the main weapon of biologists-materialists. Evolutionary doctrine continuously enriched with new ideas and reveals the deeper patterns of development of life on Earth. This doctrine is not a system frozen dogmas, and growing at deepening the knowledge of the nature of the system of views; evolutionary approach is characteristic for all areas of modern science. The process of evolution is complex and varied. Consideration of ways and laws of the evolutionary process is one of the leading problems of modern evolutionary theory, representing the currently rapidly growing field of biology.
On soil prepared evolutionary doctrine, there are new disciplines, from different sides appropriate to the problem of organic evolution, genetics, phylogeny, ecology, evolutionary morphology, evolutionary physiology and other
On the development of Darwin's theory, which received high evaluation of K. Marx and F. Engels, worked a lot of prominent representatives of world science. Among them are the Russian scientists: A. O. Kovalevsky (1840-1901), C. O. Kovalevsky (1842 - 1883), V. L. Komarov (1869-1945), M. A. Menzbir (1855-1935), I. I. Mechnikov (1845-1916), I. Century Michurin (1855 - 1935), I. P. Pavlov (1849-1936), K. A. Timiryazev (1843-1920), I. I. Schmalhausen (1884-1963) and others, and also abroad: Huxley (T. Huxley, 1825-1895), Haeckel (E. Haeckel, 1834-1919), Wallace (A. Wallace, 1823-1913), and other
Development of problems of evolutionary teaching Russian scientists has led to a number of major conclusions. Thus, in the area of evolutionary morphology extremely important provisions were designed by A. N. A.n.severtzov (1866-1936), created morpho-biological theory course of evolution and the theory of firebrigades. In the works of A. N. Severtsov, its staff and students widely covered such issues.
Doctrine of evolution, as the ratio of progress and regress, the problem of form and function in their mutual relations in the evolutionary process.
After the publication of Darwin's theory appeared many different theories of evolution, which claims to be modern. However, it would be a mistake to think Darwinism one of them. In our days Darwinism - the modern science of the General laws of historical development of the organic world. From all other theories Darwinism is different in that the basis for understanding the process of evolution of the organic world puts natural selection. This gave the opportunity for material to solve all the major problems of evolution and that is why the doctrine of evolution became a science only in the form of Darwinism (see).