The exhumation and examination of the corpse

The exhumation is called removing the corpse from the burial place.
The very exhumation produced for later forensic medical examination of the body, is an investigative action. It produces an investigator on the basis of the decision in the presence of witnesses and with the participation of forensic medical expert.
The reasons for forensic studies exhumed corpse can be:
1) disposal of a corpse without forensic or the anatomic researches, in case of later about the possibility of violent death;
2) significant deficiencies primary forensic medical examination of the body, established with the investigating or trial, complicating the decision important for the investigation and court issues;
3) newly discovered circumstances that require resolution of issues not raised before the expert during the initial examination of the corpse;
4) detection of a corpse, secretly buried by the offender, or the accidental discovery of the corpse, "disposed of", for example, during construction works.
Thus, the study exhumed corpse may be either primary or repeated.
The exhumation of the corpse precedes the exact place of burial, identification of the grave, after which the grave opened and the corpses removed from it. In the process of exhumation, the investigator records in the Protocol: the depth of the grave nature of the soil, the material from which made the coffin, its status and content. The exhumation of the bodies were secretly buried by the offender, the description of the soil, the place of burial, its depth, position and condition of the corpse must be especially careful.
To conduct a forensic medical examination exhumed corpse investigator issued a decree, which specifies the circumstances that necessitated the exhumation and examination, the name of the expert (experts)who is entrusted with the examination, and issues for resolution. The study exhumed corpse, as a rule, is made in the morgue, in some cases - in another room, or even at the cemetery.
Before the examination the expert examines the circumstances of the case, the data of the primary examination of the body (if it was made). The procedure of research exhumed corpse same as the study of the corpse at all. It includes external and internal research, but has certain characteristics. One feature in particular is the need to study not only the damage that has been present on the body and were described in the primary his study, but those that formed in the result of its implementation (the incisions made at showdown, defects in place of the removed organs, and bones, joints, and others), as well as the changes that were formed as a result of decomposition of a corpse.
Putrid change corpse, especially advanced, hamper the solution of the expert issues such as the establishment of limitation of death, the nature of pathological changes of internal organs, peculiarities of soft-tissue injuries, and others In connection with this, the sooner after death and after the burial is the exhumation, the more opportunities for forensic medical examination to resolve questions of judicial and investigative bodies. However, a number of issues can be resolved and long after the burial. So, if there were mechanical damage to the bones, in the study of the corpse, even many years after his burial can be obtained valuable data, allowing to establish the nature of injuries of bones, the mechanism of their formation, to confirm or refute the findings of the expert on initial examination of the corpse. Using a special method, providing for skin treatment acetic-alcoholic solution, even on the decayed skin can be restored to its original appearance of skin wounds. In some cases it is possible to make a few months after the burial of a corpse. During examination of exhumed corpses importance of laboratory research methods: forensic chemistry, histology (with little time after the death), the physical.
Various chemicals are stored in the body during different time. Metal poisons and arsenic can persist in the body for years. Carbon oxide and derivatives of barbituric acid can be detected in the tissues of the body in a few months after the burial. Alkaloids are identified in a period from a few months to 2 years.
If suspected death from poisoning, the exhumation for forensic chemical study of seized samples from the earth below and above the coffin (not less than 500 g each sample), part of the coffin, clothes that were on the corpse. During the forensic examination of exhumed corpses for forensic chemical research confiscate or authorities (if they can be differentiated)or decayed due to the rotting remains of a total weight of 2 kg
In recent years developed a technique of definition of the antigenic structure of putrefactive changed organs and tissues, which can be done in a few months, and in the hair, several years after his death. This should be used if you need to establish group membership tissues in the study exhumed corpse.
The study exhumed corpse regardless of the duration of death and date of burial, the severity of putrefactive changes should be as complete as possible. After forensic examination exhumed corpse is laid in the tomb (the same or a new one) and dispose of.

Checklist
1. What are the main issues of forensic medical expert in the study parts of the dismembered corpse?
2. What laboratory methods can be used for investigation of the parts of the dismembered corpse?
3. What is the exhumation?
4. What legal provisions shall be followed when the exhumation?