The experiment under the Salta

The first anesthetic substance nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform is brought to the people of the XIX century discoveries in chemistry. Church supervision was extended to those who studied chemistry, this godless and denied by science. About the hypnotic action "sweet sulphate" - sulfuric ether - knew in 1540 Paracelsus. It was "the first chemist from the creation of the world", as he called it Herzen. The great rebel and the subverter authorities, Paracelsus wandered from country to country. In the end, he was denied the opportunity to teach, considering his heretical teaching.
As the opening anaesthetics and twenty-five years of struggle for their introduction into medical practice represent a large page in the history of science. Connected with them many names, many dramatic events. There are two monument of the discoveries ether anesthesia: Dr. Morton from the American state of Massachusetts and Charles Jackson from Boston doctor and chemist, teacher Morton. The dispute about who of them to be the first, not still solved.
Interesting statement, owned by C. Robinson, author of the book about the history of anaesthesia, published in new York in 1946. "Many pioneers of anesthesia were mediocrities, " he writes. - In the result of... random circumstances they had a hand in this discovery. Their quarrels and petty jealousy left a bad mark in science. But there are pieces of a larger scale, which participated in the opening ceremony, among them the major, as a man and as a scientist, it is likely to be regarded as Pirogov".
Pies went to new business in a big way, in detail, the way I used to do everything. After the first message from Boston a year has passed. In thirteen cities of Russia surgeons have performed under General anesthesia, six hundred ninety operations. Three hundred of them spent Pies.
He began with an experiment. Experiments on animals, on yourself, monitor the effect of anesthesia on forty healthy people, fifty operations in the clinic, it took several months. Then followed a mass experiment in unusual circumstances: in the summer of 1847 Pies, his assistant Dr. Nammert and nurse Kalashnikov go to the Caucasus. Siberian tarantas lucky thirty specially designed anesthesia masks and thirty-two pounds of air. Tarantas delayed in large cities, where Pies demonstrates the benefits of the new method of anesthesia. The purpose of the trip - the current army. Decided to test the capabilities of anestesiologia in war conditions.
In a battle of aul Salty Pies operated with the use of anesthesia hundred wounded. He worked in a hurry woven huts, and behind him were crowding curious. They were not dispersed - so told Tarts. Let your eyes will see that to be afraid there is nothing. Soon soldier wireless telegraphy regularly carried glory "zamyatalin drops" doctor Pirogov. And the doctor summed up the results of the experiment: "Henceforth essential instrument will be like a surgical knife necessary accessory of every physician at the time of its action on strong membranous field".
Pirogov was the first to attempt to reveal the secret of action of anesthesia. What impact its effect on the blood, the nervous system? Which stages he is and does age, individual features of the patient? Maybe anesthesia affects post-operative treatment?
Issues was more than we would like. Solved them all the medical world. In Moscow, in the University, worked as a specially crafted anesthesia Committee headed by the famous Russian scientist A. Filamofitsky. The experiments were conducted in St. Petersburg, Kiev, Kharkov.
Pirogov is developing new ways of introduction anaesthetic substance directly into the bloodstream (currently this type of anesthesia is called "Russian method").
April 1, 1847 Pies reports Petersburg doctors about one kind of anesthesia and on the special device, which can successfully enter a pair of air in the rectum. After a few days listen to his report at the session of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and in a few days to Pirogov applaud the scientists of the Paris Academy. Among them - well-known surgeon, Valpo, met with hostility anesthesia. That he belonged to a comparison: "the pain during the operation - not more than a Chimera, which even to think inadmissible". Valpo felt the pain and the surgeon's knife is an integral concept.
No less famous French physiologist Magandi also spoke against ether anesthesia, calling it "immoral and irreligious". On this occasion, the Moscow doctors said Magandi through his journal: "Is it possible to consider immoral use of pain relief, if it is for the benefit of the patient? If you stand on the point of view of Magandi, every surgery would be a criminal offence".
In 1848 Pirogov first introduced for pain anesthetic mixture.
"A mixture of chloroform and ether, - he wrote, - there is reliable in the sense that it anesteziruty not so hard and fast as pure chloroform, but sooner and stronger than some essential pair.
The mixed sleep was great future. In a modern surgeons already have to forty anesthetic mixture.
Pirogov knew from experience that the effect of the anesthetic followed by consistent off in the various departments of the Central nervous system. It translates external irritation in the sense of pain a person feels. Pirogov gathered valuable observations in this area. However, the mechanism of action neverovatno blood on the nervous system remained unknown.
't know fully all its subtleties and modern medicine, although its success in anesthesiology huge. So, the search for a better analgesic, ideal for both patient and physician, do not stop in our days.