Forensic medical examination

Forensic medical examination applies to the resolution of the special medical and biological issues arising in the practical activity of the organs of the court and investigation.
Mandatory forensic medical examination is provided by the senior 79 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR to determine the cause of death, the nature of injuries, the physical condition of the witness or victim, and also in other cases stipulated by the law. Forensic medical examination in the USSR functioned in the system of health authorities. The experts is governed by the procedural rules and regulations on the production of forensic medical examination in the USSR".
Forensic medical examination can be done only based on the resolution of the investigative or judicial authorities. In morgues the examination of corpses, in outpatient care - examination of alive persons, and in the forensic laboratories - examination of evidence, forensic chemical, physical-technical examination, etc.
Forensic medical examination is performed only by persons with higher medical education; it can take the regular medical specialists (forensic experts), and the doctors-experts, i.e. physicians any profession, who are attracted to the forensic medical examination.

Forensic medical examination. Unlike examination appointment on the grounds of the need Art. 78 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR), the forensic medical examination is mandatory to establish the causes of death and the nature of the bodily injury; to determine the physical condition of the witness or victim, when there is a doubt about their ability to correctly perceive circumstances of relevance to the case, and to give proper testimony; to ascertain the age when required (article 79 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR). The actual application of forensic medical examination significantly beyond compulsory occasion of her appointment. The need for a forensic medical examination, as a rule, occurs when investigating almost all crimes against the person (senior 102-131 criminal code of the RSFSR), and vocational official crimes health workers (article 128 of the criminal code of the RSFSR), illegal medical treatment (article 221 of the criminal code of the RSFSR), simulation and self-harm (articles 80 and 249 of the criminal code of the RSFSR), as well as in the civil process, for example when dealing with some cases of divorce, alimony claims and so on
Forensic medical examination in the USSR, in addition to the specific needs of justice, aimed at improving the organisation and staging of practical health care. It is carried out the following activities: analysis of expert materials on the forensic clinical-anatomical conferences, identification of causes and conditions, defects diagnostics and treatment, alarms for cases of infectious diseases, the clinic study and morphology of diseases leading to sudden death, recommendations to reduce household intoxications and injuries, scientific development problems of human pathology.
Forensic medical examination in the USSR functions in the health system. The activities of forensic experts, in addition to procedural rules, regulated by "regulations on the production of forensic medical examination in the USSR" (approved by the USSR Ministry of health in agreement with the Prosecutor's office of the USSR, the Ministry of justice of the USSR and the Ministry of state security of the USSR on December 13, 1952). The instructions say: purpose of forensic medical examination in the USSR, the conditions of its implementation, the structure and governance of forensic authorities, characteristics of the objects, principles of forensic documentation, General provisions of the forensic experts and about the functional features of the official forensic medical units and forensic laboratories. According to the instruction by a medical forensic expert can only be a doctor who has received special training and occupying a position of a forensic expert. If it is not possible to bring him to the enquiry, in particular for the autopsy (article 180 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR), it may be entrusted to another doctor, who in such cases should be named "medical expert". Proceeding from this position, theory and practice of forensic medicine are taught to students of General medicine, pediatric and sanitary departments under a single program, approved by the Ministry of health of the USSR.
Measures to improve the performances of forensic medical examination in the USSR provided by order of the Minister of health of the USSR № 166 10 April 1962, This order establishes a list of positions of forensic medical examination, approved the Regulations of the Bureau of forensic medical examination", defined departments, members of the Bureau: Department of forensic-medical examination of alive persons (ambulance), Department of forensic examination of corpses with forensic histology Department, the Department of forensic investigation of evidence, with offices: forensic Sciences, physical-technical and forensic chemistry.

In the system of forensic examination to ensure appropriate quality research relating to examination act and regularly published rules, instructions and methodological letters, reflecting modern scientific achievements in the field of medicine, forensic medicine, biology, chemistry and physics. The current practice of destination (article 81 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR) additional examination (in case of insufficient clarity or completeness of initial detention), as well as re-examination (for the groundless detention or doubts in its correctness) applies to forensic medical examination, which contributes to improving the evidentiary value of the forensic medical reports. Of special importance in this respect, the Commission examination conducted by the Bureau of forensic medical examination. In forensic practice is dominated by examination of survivors, research bodies and physical evidence; less often the only source for examination are the materials of the case (the case papers examination is conducted mainly in the Bureau of forensic medical examination).
Forensic-medical examination of alive persons, except compulsory reasons (see above), often performed to study the sex of States in the investigation of sexual crimes, with sexually transmitted infections, to determine alcoholic intoxication, and also on other occasions.
The forensic examination of corpses, necessarily violent death, suspected violent death (regardless of the conditions, circumstances, kind of death and place of its occurrence, including in medical institutions), sudden death (regardless of the place of its occurrence), when the cause of death is doctor of the medical institution not installed and issued medical certificate of death, in the cases of deaths in health facilities with an unknown diagnosis, and if the law enforcement authorities adopted a complaint against the illegal or improper treatment if the patient medical institution or the victim delivered already dead when the identity of the deceased not installed (the corpses of unknown persons).
Material evidence examined in the forensic laboratories, represent, as a rule, the objects of biological or chemical origin (blood, hair, sperm, saliva, meconium, urine and other secretions, bones, organs, food products, plants or their parts, chemicals, medicines and so on). All these objects are accepted in the mentioned laboratory only in areas of bodies of inquiry, investigation or trial. All kinds of forensic medical examination shall be compulsory documentation. Structural basis of a forensic medical examination and guidelines are determined by the procedural rules (articles 191 of the code of criminal procedure of the RSFSR) and "regulations on the production of forensic medical examination in the USSR".
Personnel staff of forensic experts are formed from physicians received training in the institutes of advanced training of doctors in residency at the higher medical educational institutions; forensic experts raise qualification to improve institutions, active participation in the work of departments of all-Union scientific society of forensic etc.