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Forensic medical examination to determine the severity of injuries

In "the Fundamentals of criminal legislation of the USSR and Union republics" (article 7) States that the protection of personality and rights of citizens against crime is one of the tasks of the Soviet criminal legislation. For committing crimes against the person (causing harm to the life, health, freedom and dignity of persons) act provides for criminal liability.
During the investigation and consideration of the courts of criminal cases on crimes against life and health, conducting a forensic medical examination to determine the nature (in the sense of this article and severity) bodily injury is required (article 79 of the code of criminal procedure). Country-wide "Rules of forensic determine the severity of bodily injuries" (1979) stated: "From a medical point of view under bodily injury should be understood violations anatomic integrity or physiological functions of organs and tissues, resulting from exposure to environmental factors".
In the result of violations of anatomic integrity or physiological functions of organs and tissues of human health has been harmed, which determines the severity of injuries.
In accordance with the criminal legislation of the Azerbaijan, Armenian, Belarusian, Georgian, Kyrgyz, Lithuanian, Moldavian Soviet socialist Republic, the RSFSR, Tajik, Turkmen and Uzbek SSR bodily injury severity are divided into three degrees: serious, less serious, easy. In Kazakh, Latvian and Ukrainian SSR injuries are subdivided into severe, moderate and slight, and in the Estonian SSR in particularly serious, grave and easy.
From 01. 04. 79 ' was introduced Union "Rules of forensic determine the severity of bodily injuries", enabling to unify forensic medical criteria for the assessment of the severity of injuries in all republics of the USSR. They provide medical criteria signs of physical injuries of various severity level, envisaged by the criminal legislation of most of the Union republics. Based on these characteristics determine the severity of injuries as grave, less grave and light (in the criminal code of the RSFSR, respectively senior 108, 109 and 112).
Grounds for conducting the forensic examination is the decision of the investigative authorities or the court.
The tasks of the forensic expert must include: 1) determination of the existence of bodily injury and medical diagnostic feature (bruise, abrasion, wound, fracture, and others); 2) the elucidation of the mechanism of formation damage (guns, means that caused it); 3) definition of limitation of damage; 4) the qualification of the severity of bodily injuries.
In addition, before the expert can be supplied and other issues, which are dictated by the specifics of the circumstances under which damaged, or the need to identify a specific instance of weapons causing damage.
"Instruction on the forensic medical examination in the USSR (1978) requires that in "expert Opinion", and the "Instrument" in the examination or inspection of the victims, defendants and other parties had a detailed description of the identified during the expert examination objective Medical data, an indication about the direction of an expert witness to doctors of other specialties, radiology, and other studies, as well as the results of these surveys and studies.
The study of the circumstances of the occurrence of damage and medical data relating to produce expertise, is essential to the completeness and objectivity of the expert study and conclusions of the expert. Expert has the right to be given all materials on the merits of the incident, necessary for preparation of conclusions (article 82 of the code of criminal procedure).