The actual nutrition of elderly and old people

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In connection with stated the issue of normalization of fat intake for people of elderly and senile age acquires special scientific and practical value. However, until now, has not been finally determined the need of the elderly and old people in fats. There is an opinion that optimal rate of fat in their daily diet should be about 1 g per 1 kg of body weight, and energy value fat - not to exceed 25% of total daily calories.
As is known, no one used in human nutrition of fats in itself is not fully biologically valuable, so in the diet of older persons, special attention must be paid to the rational combination of fats different origin. However, in the existing recommendations on standardizing the fat component of food is not taken into account species differences fats, and these "norms" of various countries are different. For example, in the GDR for men aged 60-75 years recommended 68 grams of fat per day for women and 65 g; for men and women aged 75 to 90 years this value is reduced to 57 g (Ketz, 1973). In the USSR for elderly and old people set daily need in fats from 76 to 85 g (b.p. Burgau, 1968).
In the works of the last years shows a clear influence of fatty acid spectra of food on the pathogenesis of a number of violations in the circulatory system, for their active role in the structure and function of cell membranes. That is why is extremely important calculation of fatty acid composition of the diet. It allows to re-evaluate the effects of changes in supply to the aging process and the nature of the development of atherosclerosis.
We calculated the actual content in the diet only the most common saturated fatty acids - palmitic and stearic. The contents of the first of them per day on average amounted to 17.3, the second - 7,9, Of the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic was correspondingly 9,8 and 0.5, 0,48 g, and, as in the case of saturated acids, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the value of their content in food of men and women. From a fat-like substances was calculated cholesterol and phosphatides (respectively 0.35 and of 2.34 g).
After analyzing the data on the number and nature of fat contained in the actual diets were examined, we found that these data are not consistent with the requirements of gorodiatichi. Mature and oldest people (average for the group) consume a lot of fat in General and animals in particular. While significant differences between elderly and old people are not detected, while gender differences occurred. The percentage of daily calories from fat was higher than the recommended value by 10. Identified insufficient consumption of vegetable oils, which naturally had an effect on fatty acid composition of rations. The obtained data, in our opinion, support the view of many researchers of excess fat consumption older people and, of course, cannot be considered positive, taking into account the influence of high consumption of fat on the development of atherosclerosis.
Taking into account that in human nutrition carbohydrates dominate, we felt it appropriate to determine their contents in the ration. The content of carbohydrates in the actual diet averaged 292,8 g, calculated per 1 kg of body weight of 4.4? G. Caloric value at the expense of carbohydrates was 54,2% of the daily caloric intake. Women consume carbohydrates less than men, older people - more than the old ones (the differences are statistically significant).
Unlike contradictory data about the needs of older people in protein and fats need them in carbohydrates is not debatable. Most researchers point to the need to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in the diet. This is because the regulatory mechanisms of homeostasis with age violated, hyperglycemia under load glucose in the elderly are more pronounced, and the restoration of the initial level of sugar in the blood is slower: reduced tolerance to carbohydrates, increases postpesimisti factor.
In recent years, as in the Soviet Union and abroad great importance is attached to the intake of simple Sugars, as they play a leading role in the development of atherosclerotic process (Yudkin, 1972). Some researchers lead convincing enough sociological, experimental and clinical evidence to believe the excessive consumption of simple Sugars not less thorough cause of cardiovascular and other diseases (obesity, diabetes and so on).