The actual nutrition of elderly and old people

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A correlation between mortality from atherosclerosis and intake of Sugars (Yudkin, 1972). In some countries the consumption of sugar as an essential carbohydrate component of the food reaches 20% of the total daily calorie intake. In the USSR, for example, over the last 20 years consumption of sugar has increased in 3 times (G. M. Geller, 1972).
In recent years, in most economically developed countries significantly changed the structure of consumption by the population of basic food products. For example, if in the US over the last 6-8 decades the number of fats consumed by the population increased by only 12%, sugar - by 120% (Antar et al., 1964), with a sharp reduction in consumption of complex carbohydrates (cereals, flour, bread and other). It is not surprising that out of almost 30,000 inhabitants in one of the cities of England revealed more than 1000 people with hyperglycemia (the diagnosis of diabetes was excluded), among which the frequency of diseases of the cardiovascular system was 50% higher (Keen et al., 1965). A similar relationship is noted by other researchers in people whose diet is simple sugar prevailed over complex carbohydrates, and replacement of simple Sugars complicated usually normalized gerolimenas currency (McDonald et al., 1970).
These data confirm the importance of carbohydrates, their quantity and nature to human health, the development of a number of pathological and age-related changes in his body and indisputably indicate the feasibility of restricting carbohydrates in the diet of older people. Thus, according to some researchers, the share of carbohydrates in a balanced diet of elderly people should have no more than 50-55% of the daily calorie intake (Riihland, 1971), the others - 63-70% (Morgner, 1968).
Nemenova, Pokrovskiy (1967) was optimal amount of carbohydrates, constituting 59-62% of daily calories. The number of carbohydrates in the diet should be 300-320 grams per day for men and 280-290 g for women. To reduce this number is better by reducing consumption of sugar, white bread, muffins, pastries, jams and other sweets. Sugar consumption it is recommended to limit to 50 g / day (K. S. Petrovsky, 1971).
It should be emphasized that in the current understanding of human needs for food, attention is paid not only adequate to the body's supply of food substances and energy, but also to comply with certain relations between the numerous factors of power. It is known that in the formula balanced diet adult ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is 1:1:4. From the above literature data it is possible to make a conclusion about the feasibility of limits with age, fats and carbohydrates, which will naturally lead to a change of the equation of balance of these substances. Some researchers represent the ratio 1 : : 0,7 :3 (K. S. Petrovsky, 1971). T. A. Bracks et al. (1973) believe that this ratio will not meet the above needs of the elderly in essential nutrients. According to our data, it should be 1 : 0,8 : 3,5, however, it cannot be considered as optimal, due to a certain limit the amount of protein in the diet in comparison with the requirements of gorodiatichi.
The question of vitamin provision of an aging organism occupies a special place in gerontology. According to the conventional view, with age in the body decreases the intensity of metabolic processes and oxidative reactions. Vitamins are nutrients that have a high biological activity, so their deficiency leads primarily to a violation of the enzyme systems and reactions of the organism, to the disorder of metabolism.
In domestic and foreign literature contains materials, indicating the change of the currency of vitamins during aging, reduced supply of an organism of some vitamins (C. I. Molotkov, 1968; in. A. Efremov, 1970; M. I. Smirnov, 1974; Fekl, Berg, 1972, and others).